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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Ulmaceae
Genera: Ampelocera – †Cedrelospermum – Hemiptelea – Holoptelea – PhyllostylonPlaneraUlmusZelkova


Ulmaceae Mirb., Elém. Physiol. Vég. Bot. 2: 905 (1815), nom. cons..

Type genus: Ulmus L.

Additional references

Meyer, H.W. & Manchester, S.R. 1997. The Oligocene Bridge Creek flora of the John Day Formation, Oregon. University of California Publications in the Geological Sciences 141: 1–364. ISBN 978-0-520-09816-9. Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Ulmaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jan 4. Reference page. 2021. Ulmaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jan 4.
Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 6, May 2005. [1]
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Vascular Plant Families and Genera[2]

Vernacular names
العربية: دردارية
asturianu: Ulmacees
azərbaycanca: Qarağackimilər
беларуская: Вязавыя
български: Брястови
català: Ulmàcia
čeština: jilmovité
dansk: Elme-familien
Deutsch: Ulmengewächse
English: elm family
Esperanto: Ulmacoj
español: Olmo
eesti: Jalakalised
euskara: Ulmaceae
فارسی: نارونیان
suomi: Jalavakasvit
Nordfriisk: Iiperplaanten
français: Ulmacées
hrvatski: Brjestovke
hornjoserbsce: Wjazowe rostliny
magyar: Szilfafélék
日本語: ニレ科
ქართული: თელისებრნი
қазақша: Қарағаштар тұқымдасы
한국어: 느릅나무과
lietuvių: Guobiniai
македонски: Брестови
Nederlands: Iepenfamilie
norsk: Almefamilien
polski: Wiązowate
русский: Вязовые
slovenčina: brestovité
svenska: Almväxter
Türkçe: Karaağaçgiller
українська: В'язові, Ільмові
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qayragʻochdoshlar
Tiếng Việt: Họ Du
中文: 榆科

The Ulmaceae (/ʌlˈmeɪsi/) are a family of flowering plants that includes the elms (genus Ulmus), and the zelkovas (genus Zelkova).[2] Members of the family are widely distributed throughout the north temperate zone, and have a scattered distribution elsewhere except for Australasia.[1][3]

The family was formerly sometimes treated to include the hackberries, (Celtis and allies), but analysis by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group members suggests that these genera are better placed in the related family Cannabaceae. The circumscription included in the taxobox is the one suggested by P. Stevens on his Missouri Botanical Garden Angiosperm Phylogeny Website and includes information from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Vascular Plant Families and Genera list.[3] It generally is considered to include ca 7 genera and about 45 species.[4] Some classifications also include the genus Ampelocera.[5]

The family is a group of evergreen or deciduous trees and shrubs with mucilaginous substances in leaf and bark tissue. Leaves are usually alternate on the stems. The leaf blades are simple (not compound), with entire (smooth) or variously toothed margins, and often have an asymmetrical base. The flowers are small and either bisexual or unisexual.[6] The fruit is an indehiscent samara, nut, or drupe. Ulmus provides important timber trees mostly for furniture, and U. rubra, the slippery elm, is a medicinal plant known for the demulcent property of its inner bark. Planera aquatica is also a timber species. Planera, Ulmus, and Zelkova are all grown as ornamental trees.

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[5][6][7][8][9]

Cannabaceae (outgroup)








Watson, L.; Dallwitz, M. J. (1992). "The Families of Flowering Plants: Ulmaceae Mirb". Retrieved 21 November 2006.
Denk, T; GW Grimm (February 2005). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Zelkova (Ulmaceae sensu stricto) as inferred from leaf morphology, ITS sequence data and the fossil record". Bot J Linn Soc. 147 (2): 129–157. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2005.00354.x.
Stevens, P (2001). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Ueda, Kunihiko; K Kosuge; H Tobe (June 1997). "A molecular phylogeny of Celtidaceae and Ulmaceae (Urticales) based on rbcL nucleotide sequences". Journal of Plant Research. 110 (2): 171–178. doi:10.1007/BF02509305.
Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Morawetz, Jeffery; Pires, J. Chris; Nepokroeff, Molly; Conti, Elena; Zjhra, Michelle; Hall, Jocelyn C. & Chase, Mark W. (2002), "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL–F, and ndhF sequences", Am J Bot, 89 (9): 1531–1546, doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531, PMID 21665755
Zavada MS, Kim M (1996). "Phylogenetic analysis of Ulmaceae". Plant Syst Evol. 200 (1): 13–20. doi:10.1007/BF00984745.
Neubig K, Herrera F, Manchester S, Abbott JR (July 7–11, 2012). Fossils, biogeography and dates in an expanded phylogeny of Ulmaceae. Botany 2012: Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America in Columbus, Ohio, USA. St. Louis, Missouri: Botanical Society of America. Abstract 316.
Sun M; Naeem R; Su J-X; Cao Z-Y; J. Burleigh G; Soltis PS; Soltis DE; Chen Z-D (2016). "Phylogeny of the Rosidae: A dense taxon sampling analysis". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 363–391. doi:10.1111/jse.12211.

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