Fine Art

Ulmus bergmanniana leaves

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Ulmaceae
Genus: Ulmus
Species: Ulmus bergmanniana
Varietates: U. b. var. bergmanniana – U. b. var. lasiophylla

Ulmus bergmanniana C.K.Schneid., Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 902. (1912).
Native distribution areas:

China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Additional references

Fu, L.K., Xin, Y. & Whittemore, A.T. 2003. Ulmus. Pp. 1-10 in Wu, Zh.Y. & Raven, P.H. (eds.), Flora of China. Volume 5: Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, ISBN 1-930723-27-X. efloras PDF Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Ulmus bergmanniana in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Ulmus bergmanniana. Published online. Accessed: 17 May 2020.

Ulmus bergmanniana C.K.Schneid., commonly known as Bergmann's elm, is a deciduous tree found across much of China in forests at elevations of 1500–3000 m.[1]


The tree is very closely related to the wych elm Ulmus glabra; it can reach a height of 26 metres (85 ft) with a wide-spreading crown, and a trunk of about 0.9 m d.b.h.[2] The bark is longitudinally fissured, and varies in colour from greyish-white to dark grey. The pubescent leaves range from obovate to elliptic, less than 16 cm (6.3 in) long, and bluish-green when mature.[3][4] The perfect, wind-pollinated apetalous flowers are produced on second-year shoots in February, followed by generally obovate samarae <30 mm long by 14 mm width, the centre of the seed about 7 mm from the slightly notched apex. Branchlets do not possess the corky wings characteristic of many other elm species.

Samara of Ulmus bergmanniana

Leaves of Ulmus bergmanniana

U. bergmanniana, Grange Farm Arboretum

Pests and diseases

U. bergmanniana has a moderate resistance to Dutch elm disease; in trials [5] in Oklahoma it was also found to be eschewed by the elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola [3], but further north at the Morton Arboretum was moderately to highly preferred by the insect. The species is also susceptible to the elm leafminer.[6]


The tree was introduced to the West in 1900. In trials in the USA it was found to propagate well, and also proved to be very winter hardy. The tree was one of 12 Chinese species under evaluation at the Morton Arboretum, Illinois, in 2009 by the late Dr George Ware.[7] There are no known cultivars of this taxon.

Subspecies & varieties

Two varieties are recognized: var. bergmanniana L.K.Fu, and var. lasiophylla C.K.Schneid..

The species was named by Camillo Karl Schneider for his friend Carl Bergmann, who assisted in indexing the work in which it was published.[8]

North America

Brenton Arboretum, US.
Chicago Botanic Garden, US. Planted in West Collections Area.
Denver Botanic Gardens, US. No acc. no. available.
Morton Arboretum, US. acc. no. 44-95. Obtained from Yunnan Province, China.
United States National Arboretum, Washington, D.C., US. Acc. nos. 68997, 76216, 76217, 76242, 68977.


Grange Farm Arboretum, Lincolnshire, UK. Acc. no. 507
Wijdemeren City Council, Netherlands. Elm collection. Planted 2013 Smeerdijkgaarde, Kortenhoef.



Pan-Global Plants [4], Frampton-on-Severn, Gloucestershire, UK.


"Ulmus bergmanniana_EOL".
Fu, L., Xin, Y. & Whittemore, A. (2002). Ulmaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 5 (Ulmaceae through Basellaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 1930723407 [1]
White, J. & More, D. (2003). Trees of Britain & Northern Europe. Cassell's, London. ISBN 0304361925
"Elm Leaf Beetle Survey". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
Grimshaw, J. & Bayton, R. (2009). New Trees - Recent Introductions to Cultivation. RBG Kew, London. ISBN 978-1-84246-173-0
Dirr, M. (2009). 'Future Tree Selections'. Western, Spring 2009, p.8. Western Nursery & Landscape Association, St Joseph, Missouri.[2]
Schneider, C.K. (1906-1912). Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde. Vol.2. p.902. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.

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