Fine Art

Valerianella locusta

Valerianella locusta (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Dipsacales

Familia: Caprifoliaceae
Subfamilia: Valerianoideae
Genus: Valerianella
Species: Valerianella locusta
Subspecies: V. l. subsp. locusta – V. l. subsp. lusitanica

Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr., Fl. Bordel. ed. 2: 93 (1821).

Valeriana locusta L., Sp. Pl. 1: 33 (1753).


Laterrade, J.F. 1821. Flore Bordelaise. Séconde édition. Bordeaux: A. Brossier. Reference page. : 93
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 33. Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2019. Valerianella locusta. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 29. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Valerianella locusta in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 29. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Valerianella locusta. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 29 2019. 2019. Valerianella locusta. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 29.

Vernacular names
العربية: خس النعجة
català: Herba dels canonges, Valerianella olitoria
čeština: kozlíček polní
Cymraeg: Gwylaeth yr oen
Deutsch: Gewöhnlicher Feldsalat, Rapunzel, Ackersalat, Vogerlsalat, Nüsslisalat, Lämmli, Mausohrsalat, Nüsslersalat
English: corn salad, lewiston cornsalad, lamb’s lettuce, field salad
español: canónigo, alfaces, canónigos, dulceta, hierba de los canónigos, lechuga de cordero, valeriana comestible, valerianilla portuguesa, yerba de canónigos, yerba del canónigo, yerba de los canónigos
eesti: Põldkännak, Valerianella olitoria
euskara: Ardi-mihi
suomi: Vuonankaali, rantavuonankaali
français: Mâche, Blanchette, Boursette, Clairette, Doucette, Oreillette, Rampon, Valérianelle, Salade de Blé
galego: Herba dos cóengos
hrvatski: Matovilac
hornjoserbsce: Prawa rjaponka, Solotwička
magyar: Salátagalambbegy, galambbegy, madársaláta, mezeisaláta
Ido: Valerianelo
italiano: Formentino, Songino, Dolcetta, Valerianella, Insalata Valeriana, Serzetto
日本語: ノヂシャ, ノヂシャ, ラムズレタス
norsk bokmål: Vårsalat
Nederlands: Gewone veldsla, veldsla
occitan: Doceta
polski: Roszponka Warzywna, Roszpunka Jadalna, Roszpunka warzywna, Rapunkuł
português: canônigos, canónigos, alface-da-terra, alface-de-coelho, alface-de-cordeiro
русский: Валерянелла, Валерьяница, Полевой салат, Валерианелла огородная, Валерианелла колосковая
slovenčina: valeriánka poľná
slovenščina: Navadni motovilec
српски / srpski: Матовилац, Matilovac, Матиловац
svenska: Vårklynne, Machésallad, Machésallat, Vårsallat
vèneto: Galinèla, Molesin, Gałinełe, Galinele
West-Vlams: Kôornsaloa, Valerianella olitoria
walon: Doûcete, Oraye-di-live
中文(简体): 莴苣缬草
中文(繁體): 萵苣纈草
中文(臺灣): 萵苣纈草
中文: 莴苣缬草, 萵苣纈草, 羊萵苣, 羊莴苣, 野苣

Valerianella locusta, called common cornsalad or lamb's lettuce, is a small, herbaceous, annual flowering plant in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae. It is native to Europe, western Asia and north Africa, where it is eaten as a leaf vegetable.
Mache Blooming.jpg


Cornsalad grows in a low rosette with spatulate leaves up to 15.2 cm long.[2] It is a hardy plant that grows to zone 5, and in mild climates it is grown as a winter green.

In warm conditions it tends to bolt to seed,[3] producing much-branched stems with clusters (cymes) of flowers. The flowers have a bluish-white corolla of five fused petals, 1.5 to 2 mm (0.06 to 0.08 in) long and wide, and three stamens. At the base of the corolla is a whorl of bracts. Fertilized flowers produce achenes with 2 sterile chambers and one fertile chamber.[4][5][6]
Mache in garden.jpg
Distribution and habitat

Cornsalad grows wild in parts of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia.[7] In Europe and Asia it is a common weed in cultivated land and waste spaces. In North America it has escaped cultivation and become naturalized on both the eastern and western seaboards.[8]

As a cultivated crop, it is a specialty of the region around Nantes, France, which is the primary producer of mâche in Europe.[9]

Cornsalad was originally foraged by European peasants. Jean-Baptiste de La Quintinie, royal gardener of King Louis XIV, introduced it to kitchen gardening.[10] It has been eaten in Britain for centuries and appears in John Gerard's Herbal of 1597.[11] It was grown commercially in London from the late 18th or early 19th century and appeared on markets as a winter vegetable, but it only became available in modern supermarkets there in the 1980s.[12] American president Thomas Jefferson cultivated mâche at his home, Monticello, in Virginia in the early 1800s.[9]
Common names

Common names include lamb's lettuce, common cornsalad, or simply cornsalad,[13]: 831 [14]: 260 [2][15] mâche[2] (/mɑːʃ/), fetticus,[2] feldsalat,[2] nut lettuce,[2] field salad. The common name 'cornsalad' refers to the fact that it often grows as a weed in cornfields,[11] ('corn' is used in the sense of 'cereal', not the US meaning of maize).

In German-speaking Switzerland it is known as Nüsslisalat or Nüssler, terms that have been borrowed by the area's many English speakers. In some areas of Germany it is known as rapunzel, and is the origin of the long-haired maiden's name in the eponymous fairy tale, but see Campanula rapunculus.

Cornsalad has a characteristic nutty flavour, dark green colour, and soft texture, and is popularly served as salad greens.[16] In restaurants that feature French cooking, it may be called doucette or raiponce, as an alternative to mâche, by which it is best known.[17]

Like other formerly foraged greens, cornsalad has many nutrients, including three times as much vitamin C as lettuce, beta-carotene, B6, iron, and potassium. It is best if gathered before flowers appear.[18]

Valerianella locusta
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
3.6 g
0.4 g
2 g
Minerals Quantity
459 mg
4 mg
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.


"The Plant List".
"Valerianella locusta". Floridata.
Plants for a Future: Valerianella locusta
"Valerianella locusta". E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia.
"Taxon Profile: Valerianella locusta". Flora of New Zealand. Missing or empty |url= (help)
"Taxon Profile: Valerianella". Flora of New Zealand.
"Valerianella locusta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-18.
"Valerianella locusta". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
"History of Mâche". Epicroots.
Organic Gardening Magazine, August–September 2007
Ayto, John, ed. (2002). An A-Z of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press.
T. W. Sanders (1917), Vegetables and Their Cultivation, London: W. H. & L. Collingridge Limited
Stace, C. A. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles (Fourth ed.). Middlewood Green, Suffolk, U.K.: C & M Floristics. ISBN 978-1-5272-2630-2.
Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003). Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora. London: A & C Black. ISBN 978-1408179505.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
"Valerianella locusta". Missouri Botanical Garden.
"Mâche". Larousse Cuisine.

Bender, David A., ed. (2005). Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ward, Artemas (1911). "[no title cited]". The Grocer's Encyclopedia.

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