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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Cucujiformia
Superfamilia: Tenebrionoidea

Familia: Tenebrionidae
Subfamilia: Pimeliinae
Tribus: Pimeliini
Genus: Pimelia
Subgenera: P. (Chaetotoma) – P. (Homalopus) – P. (Pimelia)
Overview Species

P. abnormis – P. adramantina – P. adriani – P. aegyptiaca – P. afghanistanica – P. akbesiana – P. albinea – P. alboepisternalis – P. albohumeralis – P. amblyptericollis – P. amplipennis – P. amseli – P. anatolica – P. angulata – P. angulosa – P. angusticollis – P. anomaloides – P. antiaegypta – P. apicesculpta – P. apula – P. arabica – P. arabicola – P. arenacea – P. arenosa – P. ariasi – P. ascendens – P. asirensis – P. asperula – P. atlantis – P. bactriana – P. baetica – P. bajula – P. balachowskyi – P. balkhensis – P. barcana – P. barthelemyi – P. bathyglypta – P. bellica – P. bengasiana – P. bipunctata – P. boehmi – P. bottae – P. boyeri – P. brachythorax – P. breiti – P. brevicollis – P. brisouti – P. brunneipedes – P. buqueti – P. cajetana – P. canariensis – P. canescens – P. capannii – P. capito – P. cassolai – P. cedrorum – P. cephalenica – P. cephalotes – P. chudeaui – P. ciliaticornis – P. claudia – P. comata – P. confalonierii – P. confusa – P. conjuncta – P. consonbrina – P. cordata – P. costata – P. costipennis – P. costulata – P. crenata – P. cribra – P. cribripennis – P. cursor – P. damasci – P. davletschinae – P. deckeli – P. densa – P. depressa – P. depressipennis – P. derasa – P. derasoides – P. desertorum – P. discoides – P. distincta – P. doderoi – P. doloresina – P. doumeti – P. dubia – P. duponti – P. echidna – P. echidniformis – P. edomita – P. edura – P. elevata – P. emiri – P. errans – P. estevezi – P. evanescens – P. expiata – P. fernandezlopezi – P. fornicata – P. fortecarinata – P. freyi – P. frigida – P. frigidoides – P. fulvovillosa – P. gestroana – P. gestroi – P. gibba – P. giorgii – P. goryi – P. gracilipes – P. gracilis – P. graeca – P. grandis – P. granulata – P. granulicollis – P. granulithorax – P. gridelliana – P. gridellii – P. grossa – P. haarlovi – P. hayekae – P. hemisphaerica – P. hirtella – P. hollandei – P. horni – P. ifniensis – P. imitata – P. incerta – P. incostata – P. indica – P. inexspectata – P. insinuata – P. integra – P. interjecta – P. intermedia – P. interpunctata – P. interstitialis – P. intervallaris – P. iscariota – P. jansseni – P. kandaharica – P. klapperichi – P. kraatzi – P. kruegeri – P. krueperi – P. kumshensis – P. laevidorsis – P. laevigata – P. laeviuscula – P. latastei – P. latipes – P. latreillei – P. lendli – P. letourneuxi – P. lindbergi – P. longula – P. lutaria – P. mackenziei – P. marginata – P. marseuli – P. matthiesseni – P. matutinalis – P. maura – P. mauritanica – P. medialticola – P. mediatlanta – P. melitana – P. minor – P. mittrei – P. modesta – P. mogadora – P. moltonii – P. mongeneti – P. monikovae – P. monticola – P. moralesi – P. mukurensis – P. multigranifera – P. nazarena – P. nazarenoides – P. nefudana – P. nesterovi – P. nilotica – P. nitida – P. oasis – P. oblonga – P. obsoleta – P. omanica – P. orientalis – P. oromii – P. pakistana – P. paktiana – P. papii – P. papulenta – P. parisii – P. payraudi – P. pelagosana – P. perezi – P. peyerimhoffi – P. phymatodes – P. pilifera – P. platynota – P. platytubera – P. plinthota – P. plurigranula – P. polita – P. praetermissa – P. prolongata – P. prophettei – P. pseudointerstitialis – P. pseudopilifera – P. puberula – P. punctata – P. punctatorugosa – P. puncticollis – P. radula – P. realii – P. rectangularis – P. remaudieri – P. repleta – P. retrospinosa – P. rhatica – P. rifatlanta – P. rifensis – P. robusta – P. roseni – P. rotundata – P. rotundipennis – P. rugosa – P. rugosicollis – P. rugulosa – P. ruida – P. ryssos – P. salaria – P. saroubiana – P. sarroensis – P. scabricollis – P. scabrosa – P. scabrosiformis – P. schatzmayri – P. schoenherri – P. schusteri – P. scorteccii – P. sefrensis – P. semenovi – P. seminuda – P. semiopaca – P. senegalensis – P. separanda – P. septemcostata – P. sericea – P. sericella – P. seriegranulata – P. serrimargo – P. servillei – P. similis – P. simplicior – P. sinaitica – P. solieri – P. sparsa – P. stellifera – P. subalpina – P. subcanescens – P. subglobosa – P. sublaevigata – P. subpustulata – P. subquadrata – P. subris – P. subtriseriata – P. sulcitana – P. superba – P. syriaca – P. tafrautensis – P. taroudantica – P. tenuicornis – P. tenuitarsis – P. testudo – P. theveneti – P. thomasi – P. thomsoni – P. timarchoides – P. tirsalensis – P. titan – P. tizintesti – P. torquata – P. tricostata – P. tristis – P. tuberculata – P. tunisea – P. undulata – P. urticata – P. valdanii – P. valida – P. validipes – P. variolosa – P. vartiani – P. ventricosa – P. verecostata – P. verrucosa – P. verruculifera – P. villanovae – P. villiersi – P. xauenensis – P. zarcoi – P. zarudnyi – P. zhenzhuristi
Name

Pimelia Fabricius, 1775
Vernacular names
русский: Толстяк
References

Atlas of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) of Russia

Pimelia is a genus of darkling beetles in the subfamily Pimeliinae.[1]
Contents

1 Species
2 Reproduction
3 Desert adaptations
4 Gallery
5 References
6 Further reading

Species

Pimelia aculeata Klug, 1830
Pimelia akbesiana Fairmaire, 1884
Pimelia angulata Fabricius, 1775
Pimelia angusticollis Solier, 1836
Pimelia arabica Klug, 1830
Pimelia arenacea Solier, 1836
Pimelia ascendens Wollaston, 1864
Pimelia baetica Solier, 1836
Pimelia bajula Klug, 1830
Pimelia barmerensis Kulzer, 1956
Pimelia bipunctata Fabricius, 1781
Pimelia boyeri Solier, 1836
Pimelia brevicollis Solier, 1836
Pimelia canariensis Brullé, 1838
Pimelia capito Krynicky, 1832
Pimelia cephalotes (Pallas, 1781)
Pimelia costata Waltl, 1835
Pimelia cribra Solier, 1836
Pimelia elevata Sénac, 1887
Pimelia estevezi Oromí, 1990
Pimelia fairmairei Kraatz, 1865
Pimelia fernandezlopezi Machado, 1979
Pimelia fornicata Herbst, 1799
Pimelia goryi Solier, 1836
Pimelia graeca Brullé, 1832
Pimelia grandis Klug, 1830
Pimelia granulata Solier, 1836
Pimelia granulicollis Wollaston, 1864
Pimelia grossa Fabricius, 1792
Pimelia incerta Solier, 1836
Pimelia indica Sénac, 1882
Pimelia integra Rosenhauer, 1856
Pimelia interjecta Solier, 1836
Pimelia laevigata Brullé, 1838
Pimelia lutaria Brullé, 1838
Pimelia maura Solier, 1836
Pimelia minos Lucas, 1853
Pimelia modesta Herbst, 1799
Pimelia monticola Rosenh., 1856
Pimelia nazarena Miller, 1861
Pimelia orientalis Senac, 1886
Pimelia payraudi Latreille, 1829
Pimelia perezi Sénac, 1887
Pimelia punctata Solier, 1836
Pimelia radula Solier, 1836
Pimelia repleta Reitter, 1915
Pimelia rotundata Solier, 1836
Pimelia rotundipennis Kraatz, 1865
Pimelia rugosa Fabricius, 1792
Pimelia rugulosa Germar, 1824
Pimelia ruida Solier, 1836
Pimelia scabrosa Solier, 1836
Pimelia sericea Olivier, 1795
Pimelia simplex Solier, 1836
Pimelia sparsa Brullé, 1838
Pimelia subglobosa (Pallas, 1781)
Pimelia testudo Kraatz, 1885
Pimelia undulata Solier, 1836
Pimelia variolosa Solier, 1836
Pimelia ventricosa Falderm., 1837
Pimelia verruculifera Soliér, 1836
Pimelia villanovae Sénac, 1887

[2]
Reproduction

Pimelia are univoltine, with one generation per year. Species in North Africa emerge in January to begin mating, synchronously with floral bloom. Normally Pimelia are detrivores, but during mating season they may cannibalize other adults, larvae, and eggs. This behavior may be due to need for extra nutrients or simply to eliminate competitors. Following behavior[3][failed verification] and mating take place on the slip face of a sand dune. After mating, the female digs a shallow hole and deposits a single egg, which closely resembles a grain of white rice. As the temperature rises above 50 °C the adult population dies off. Immature stages remain below the surface until maturity. During the winter the adults emerge.[4]
Wikispecies has information related to Pimelia.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pimelia.
Desert adaptations

Many Pimelia species are conspicuous as they cross sand dunes. Locomotion in this difficult terrain is facilitated by numerous tarsal setae that allow for rapid tumbling behavior.[5]

Adaptations to arid climates and desert environments allow Pimelia to survive and reproduce in the dunes, but the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors in this respect is not clear.[6] Environmental factors influencing these adaptations are extremes of temperature and humidity, excessive radiant energy, low and irregular rainfall, long periods of drought, strong winds, unstable sand substrates, and sparse, specialized vegetation.[7]

Several morphological adaptations allow Pimelia to survive in the desert, including the lipid layers of the epicuticle, fused sclerites, the subelytral cavity, and the texture of the body surface. Much of the success of tenebrionid beetles in desert habitats is due to the development of impermeable cuticles.[8] The fused sclerites of desert tenebrionids minimize water loss,[9] but they result in flightlessness.[10] The main barrier to the outward flow of water through insect integument is the lipid layer of the epicuticle.[11] In many terrestrial arthropods, the temperature affects the permeability of the cuticle. There is a sudden increase in the rate of transpiration at what is known as the transition temperature. This may coincide with a physical change, perhaps the disorientation of the lipid molecules in the epicuticle.[12] In tenebrionid beetles, the spiracles open into a humid subelytral cavity rather than directly to the atmosphere, thus reducing water loss. Water retention by intact elytral covers is greater at 0% relative humidity than at 97%. The size of the cavity is not important. Transpiration increases if the elytra are removed, emphasizing the importance of the epicuticle and subelytral cavity.[13] Pimelia have tubercles on the surface of their elytra which scatter and reflect incident energy.

Burrowing is probably the most important behavior modification for heat regulation in Pimelia, because it permits access to a broad range of ambient temperatures.[14] Pimelia are diurnal, emerging in early morning and late evening but remaining under the sand during the hot hours of the day.[15]

References

Pons, J., et al. (2002). Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA family PIM357 in species of the genus Pimelia (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera). Mol. Biol. Evol. 19(8) 1329–40.
Biolib
Ramussen, J.L., et al. (1991). The reproductive behavior of six species of Namib Desert tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 4(5) 567-82.
Lillig, M. and T. Pavlicek. Die schwarzkafer des Sinai (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Moscow, Russia. Pensoft. 2002.
Rech, N. D. (1997). Comparison of the tumbling movement found in two species of Adesmia Fischer-Waldheim (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 51(1) 86-92.
Ayal, Y. and O. Merkl. (1993). Spatial and temporal distribution of tenebrionid species (Coleoptera) in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Journal of Arid Environments 27 347-61.
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1979). Adaptive functions of the colours of desert animals. Journal of Arid Environments 2 95-104.
Adhearn, G.A. (1970). The control of water loss in desert tenebrionid beetles. Journal of Experimental Biology 53 573-95.
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1968). Respiratory function and thermal acclimation in tropical invertebrates. Nature 218 685.
Buxton, P. A. (1923). Heat, moisture, and animal's life in deserts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 96 123-31.
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1956). Studies in diurnal rhythms; bioclimatic observation in Tunisia and their significance in relation to the physiology of the fauna, especially woodlice, centipedes, scorpions and beetles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12(9) 305-29.
Hadley, N. F. (1972). Desert species and adaptation. American Scientist 60 338-47.
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1964). On the function of the sub-elytral cavity in desert Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 100 148-51.
Hamilton, W. J. Coloration and its Thermal Consequences for Diurnal Desert Insects. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross. 1975.

Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. and C. C. Constantinou. (1980). Circadian rhythmicity in Adesmia cancellata L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from Kuwait. Journal of Arid Environments 3 319-24.

Further reading

Watt, J. C. (1974). A revised subfamily classification of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 1(4). doi:10.1080/03014223.1974.9517846

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