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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Subclassis: Acari
Superordo: Parasitiformes
Ordo: Mesostigmata
Subordines (3): Monogynaspida – Sejida – Trigynaspida

Cohorts (6): Antennophorina – Cercomegistina – Gamasina – Heatherellina – Microgyniina – Uropodina

Familiae incertae sedis (2): Bulbogamasidae – Saprogamasidae
Name

Mesostigmata Canestrini, 1891
References
Primary references

Canestrini, G. 1891. Abbozzo del sistema acarologico. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti 7 2: 699–725. BHL

Additional references

Alatawi, F.J., Kamran, M. & Mirza, J.H. 2018. Mesostigmatic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) of Saudi Arabia (excluding Phytoseioidea), new records and a key to the known species. Zootaxa 4388(3): 373–394. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4388.3.4 Reference page.
Ávila-Jiménez, M.L. et al. 2011. The mesostigmatid mite (Acari: Parasitiformes) fauna of Svalbard: a revised inventory of a high Arctic archipelago. Zootaxa 3091: 33–41. Preview (PDF).
Beaulieu, F., Dowling, A.P.G., Klompen, H., de Moraes, G.J. & Walter, D.E. 2011. Superorder Parasitiformes Reuter, 1909. Pp 123–128 In
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page Reference page.
Domrow, R. 1988(1987). Acari Mesostigmata parasitic on Australian vertebrates: an annotated checklist, keys and bibliography. Invertebrate taxonomy 1(7): 817–948. DOI: 10.1071/IT9870817
Evans, G.O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, zoology 43: 203–259. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1957.tb01552.x
Hunter, P.E. & Rosario, R.M.T. 1988. Associations of Mesostigmata with other arthropods. Annual review of entomology 33: 393–417. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.33.010188.002141
Krantz, G.W. & Walter, D.E (eds.). 2009. A Manual of Acarology, Third Edition. Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock.
Lindquist, E.E., Walter, D.E. & Krantz, G.W. 2009. Chapter twelve. Order Mesostigmata. Pp. 124–232 in: Krantz, G.W. & Walter, D.E. (eds) A manual of acarology. Third edition. Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock Texas.
de Moraes, G.J., Britto, E.P.J., Mineiro, J.L. de C. & Halliday, B. 2016. Catalogue of the mite families Ascidae Voigts & Oudemans, Blattisociidae Garman and Melicharidae Hirschmann (Acari: Mesostigmata). Zootaxa 4112(1): 1–299. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4112.1.1. Reference page.
Santos, J.C., Rueda-Ramirez, D., Demite, P.R. & de Moraes, G.J. 2018. Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata): zoogeographic analyses based on newly available databases. Zootaxa 4377(4): 542–564. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4377.4.4 Reference page.
Sirvid, P.J. et al. 2010. [Chapter] SIX Phylum ARTHROPODA CHELICERATA horseshoe crabs, arachnids, sea spiders. Pp. 50–89 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.): New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 2. Kingdom Animalia. Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-87725793-3

Links

SYNOPSIS OF THE DESCRIBED MESOSTIGMATA OF THE WORLD in Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog

Mesostigmata is an order of mites belonging to the Parasitiformes. They are by far the largest group of Parasitiformes, with over 8,000 species in 130 families. Mesostigmata includes parasitic as well as free-living and predatory forms. They can be recognized by the single pair of spiracles positioned laterally on the body.

The family with the most described species is Phytoseiidae. Other families of note are Diplogyniidae, Macrochelidae, Pachylaelapidae, Uropodidae and Veigaiidae.

Amongst the best known species are Varroa destructor, an economically important parasite of honey bees, as well as the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) a parasite of poultry, most commonly chickens.

The oldest known record of the group is an indeterminate deutonymph belonging to Sejidae from the mid Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) aged Burmese amber of Myanmar.[2]
Taxonomy

Taxonomy to families (Beaulieu 2011). Genus and species counts fluctuate over time.[1][3]

Order Mesostigmata G. Canestrini, 1891
Suborder Monogynaspida Camin & Gorirossi, 1955
Infraorder Gamasina Kramer, 1881
Hyporder Arctacariae Johnston, 1982
Superfamily Arctacaroidea Evans, 1955
Family Arctacaridae Evans, 1955 (2 genera, 6 species)
Hyporder Dermanyssiae Evans & Till, 1979
Superfamily Ascoidea Voigts & Oudemans, 1905
Family Ameroseiidae Evans, 1961 (10 genera, 148 species)
Family Ascidae Voigts & Oudemans, 1905 (17 genera, 338 species)
Family Melicharidae Hirschmann, 1962 (12 genera, 201 species)
Superfamily Dermanyssoidea Kolenati, 1859
Family Dasyponyssidae Fonseca, 1940 (2 genera, 2 species)
Family Dermanyssidae Kolenati, 1859 (2 genera, 26 species)
Family Entonyssidae Ewing, 1923 (9 genera, 27 species)
Family Haemogamasidae Oudemans, 1926 (5 genera, 78 species)
Family Halarachnidae Oudemans, 1906 (7 genera, 43 species)
Family Hystrichonyssidae Keegan, Yunker & Baker, 1960 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Iphiopsididae Kramer, 1886 (14 genera, 68 species)
Family Ixodorhynchidae Ewing, 1923 (6 genera, 43 species)
Family Laelapidae Berlese, 1892 (90 genera, 1316 species)
Family Larvamimidae Elzinga, 1993 (6 genera, 43 species)
Family Macronyssidae Oudemans, 1936 (34 genera, 233 species)
Family Manitherionyssidae Radovsky & Yunker, 1971 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Omentolaelapidae Fain, 1961 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Rhinonyssidae Trouessart, 1895 (8 genera, 510 species)
Family Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, 1902 (1 genus, 7 species)
Family Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1901 (12 genera, 101 species)
Family Varroidae Delfinado & Baker, 1974 (2 genera, 6 species)
Superfamily Eviphidoidea Berlese, 1913
Family Eviphididae Berlese, 1913 (19 genera, 108 species)
Family Leptolaelapidae Karg, 1978 (12 genera, 48 species)
Family Macrochelidae Vitzthum, 1930 (20 genera, 470 species)
Family Pachylaelapidae Berlese, 1913 (26 genera, 199 species)
Family Parholaspididae Evans, 1956 (12 genera, 96 species)
Superfamily Phytoseioidea Berlese, 1916
Family Blattisociidae Garman, 1948 (11 genera, 369 species)
Family Otopheidomenidae Treat, 1955 (10 genera, 28 species)
Family Phytoseiidae Berlese, 1916 (90 genera, 2300 species)
Family Podocinidae Berlese, 1913 (2 genera, 25 species)
Superfamily Rhodacaroidea Oudemans, 1902
Family Digamasellidae Evans, 1957 (13 genera, 261 species)
Family Halolaelapidae Karg, 1965 (4 genera, 80 species)
Family Laelaptonyssidae Womersley, 1956 (1 genus, 6 species)
Family Ologamasidae Ryke, 1962 (45 genera, 452 species)
Family Rhodacaridae Oudemans, 1902 (15 genera, 148 species)
Family Teranyssidae Halliday, 2006 (15 genera, 148 species)
Superfamily Veigaioidea Oudemans, 1939
Family Veigaiidae Oudemans, 1939 (4 genera, 95 species)
Hyporder Epicriiae Kramer, 1885
Superfamily Epicrioidea Berlese, 1885
Family Epicriidae Berlese, 1885 (4 genera, 48 species)
Superfamily Heatherelloidea Walter, 1997
Family Heatherellidae Walter, 1997 (1 genus, 2 species)
Superfamily Zerconoidea G. Canestrini, 1891
Family Coprozerconidae Moraza & Lindquist, 1999 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Zerconidae G. Canestrini, 1891 (36 genera, 390, species)
Hyporder Parasitiae Evans & Till, 1979
Superfamily Parasitoidea Oudemans, 1901
Family Parasitidae Oudemans, 1901 (35 genera, 426 species)
Infraorder Uropodina Kramer, 1881
Superfamily Diarthrophalloidea Trägårdh, 1946
Family Diarthrophallidae Trägårdh, 1946 (22 genera, 63 species)
Superfamily Microgynioidea Trägårdh, 1942
Family Microgyniidae Trägårdh, 1942 (2 genera, 4 species)
Family Nothogynidae Walter & Krantz, 1999 (1 genus, 2 species)
Superfamily Thinozerconoidea Halbert, 1915
Family Protodinychidae Evans, 1957 (1 genus, 3 species)
Family Thinozerconidae Halbert, 1915 (1 genus, 1 species)
Superfamily Uropodoidea Kramer, 1881
Family Baloghjkaszabiidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 3 species)
Family Brasiluropodidae Hirschmann, 1979 (2 genera, 18 species)
Family Cillibidae Trägårdh, 1944 (2 genera, 19 species)
Family Clausiadinychidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 4 species)
Family Cyllibulidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 32 species)
Family Deraiophoridae Trägårdh, 1952 (1 genus, 36 species)
Family Dinychidae Berlese, 1916 (1 genus, 34 species)
Family Discourellidae Baker & Wharton, 1952 (1 genus, 76 species)
Family Eutrachytidae Trägårdh, 1944 (1 genus, 36 species)
Family Hutufeideriidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 9 species)
Family Kaszabjbaloghiidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 6 species)
Family Macrodinychidae Hirschmann, 1979 (4 genera, 22 species)
Family Metagynuridae Balogh, 1943 (2 genera, 17 species)
Family Nenteriidae Hirschmann, 1979 (2 genera, 128 species)
Family Oplitidae Johnston, 1968 (8 genera, 163 species)
Family Phymatodiscidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 10 species)
Family Polyaspididae Berlese, 1913 (1 genus, 16 species)
Family Prodinychidae Berlese, 1917 (3 genera, 16 species)
Family Rotundabaloghiidae Hirschmann, 1979 (4 genera, 165 species)
Family Tetrasejaspidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 15 species)
Family Trachytidae Trägårdh, 1938 (7 genera, 108 species)
Family Trachyuropodidae Berlese, 1917 (17 genera, 99 species)
Family Trematuridae Berlese, 1917 (13 genera, 401 species)
Family Trichocyllibidae Hirschmann, 1979 (5 genera, 57 species)
Family Trichouropodellidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 11 species)
Family Trigonuropodidae Hirschmann, 1979 (1 genus, 87 species)
Family Uroactiniidae Hirschmann & Zirngiebl-Nicol, 1964 (3 genera, 67 species)
Family Urodiaspididae Trägårdh, 1944 (3 genera, 26 species)
Family Urodinychidae Berlese, 1917 (13 genera, 267 species)
Family Uropodidae Kramer, 1881 (9 genera, 261 species)
Suborder Sejida Kramer, 1885
Superfamily Heterozerconoidea Berlese, 1892
Family Discozerconidae Berlese, 1910 (2 genera, 3 species)
Family Heterozerconidae Berlese, 1892 (7 genera, 13 species)
Superfamily Sejoidea Berlese, 1885
Family Ichthyostomatogasteridae Sellnick, 1953 (3 genera, 10 species)
Family Sejidae Berlese, 1885 (5 genera, 46 species) (5 genera, 46 species)
Family Uropodellidae Camin, 1955 (1 genus, 6 species)
Suborder Trigynaspida Camin & Gorirossi, 1955
Infraorder Antennophorina Camin & Gorirossi, 1955
Superfamily Aenictequoidea Kethley, 1977
Family Aenictequidae Kethley, 1977 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Euphysalozerconidae Kim, 2008 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Messoracaridae Kethley, 1977 (2 genera, 3 species)
Family Ptochacaridae Kethley, 1977 (1 genus, 3 species)
Superfamily Antennophoroidea Berlese, 1892
Family Antennophoridae Berlese, 1892 (6 genera, 19 species)
Superfamily Celaenopsoidea Berlese, 1892
Family Celaenopsidae Berlese, 1892 (7 genera, 14 species)
Family Costacaridae Hunter, 1993 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Diplogyniidae Trägårdh, 1941 (42 genera, 85 species)
Family Euzerconidae Trägårdh, 1938 (12 genera, 24 species)
Family Megacelaenopsidae Funk, 1975 (2 genera, 2 species)
Family Neotenogyniidae Kethley, 1974 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Schizogyniidae Trägårdh, 1950 (6 genera, 10 species)
Family Triplogyniidae Funk, 1977 (2 genera, 11 species)
Superfamily Fedrizzioidea Trägårdh, 1937
Family Fedrizziidae Trägårdh, 1937 (3 genera, 34 species)
Family Klinckowstroemiidae Camin & Gorirossi, 1955 (4 genera, 36 species)
Superfamily Megisthanoidea Berlese, 1914
Family Hoplomegistidae Camin & Gorirossi, 1955 (1 genus, 7 species)
Family Megisthanidae Berlese, 1914 (1 genus, 30 species)
Superfamily Paramegistoidea Trägårdh, 1946
Family Paramegistidae Trägårdh, 1946 (5 genera, 30 species)
Superfamily Parantennuloidea Willmann, 1941
Family Parantennulidae Willmann, 1941 (3 genera, 5 species)
Family Philodanidae Kethley, 1977 (2 genera, 2 species)
Family Promegistidae Kethley, 1977 (1 genus, 1 species)
Infraorder Cercomegistina Camin & Gorirossi, 1955
Superfamily Cercomegistoidea Trägårdh, 1937
Family Asternoseiidae Vale, 1954 (2 genera, 3 species)
Family Cercomegistidae Trägårdh, 1937 (5 genera, 13 species)
Family Davacaridae Kethley, 1977 (2 genera, 4 species)
Family Pyrosejidae Lindquist & Moraza, 1993 (2 genera, 3 species)
Family Saltiseiidae Walter, 2000 (1 genus, 1 species)
Family Seiodidae Kethley, 1977 (1 genus, 1 species)
Other
Meliponopus palpifer Fain & Flechtmann, 1985 has not yet been placed into a family.

References

Beaulieu, Frédéric (2011). Zhang, Zhi-Qiang (ed.). "Superorder Parasitiformes: In: Zhang, Z-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa. 3148. ISBN 978-1-86977-849-1. ISSN 1175-5326.
Joharchi, Omid; Vorontsov, Dmitry D.; Walter, David Evans (2021-09-14). "Oldest determined record of a mesostigmatic mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Sejidae) in Cretaceous Burmese amber". Acarologia. 61 (3): 641–649. doi:10.24349/goj5-bzms. ISSN 0044-586X.

"Mesostigmata". GBIF. Retrieved 2021-10-31.

"Mesostigmata". Natureserve. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
NCBI: Mesostigmata

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