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Pseudis bolbodactyla

Pseudis bolbodactyla (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Hylidae
Subfamilia: Pseudinae
Genus: Pseudis
Species: Pseudis bolbodactyla
Name

Pseudis bolbodactyla Lutz, 1925

Type locality: Lassance (17° 54´ S, 44° 34´ W), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Holotype: syntypes - MNRJ 851-852 (Belo Horizonte), AL-MNRJ 820 (Lagoa Curralinho, Lassance), USNM 97022 (Lagoa Genipapo, Lassance); AL-MNRJ 820 designated lectotype.
Synonyms

Pseudis bolbodactyla Lutz, 1925
Pseudis paradoxus bolbodactylus — Gallardo, 1961
Pseudis paradoxa bolbodactyla — Bokermann, 1966

References

Lutz, 1925, C. R. Seances Soc. Biol., Paris, 93: 138.
Gallardo, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 125: 117. .
Frost, D.R. 2021. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. Electronic Database accessible at https://amphibiansoftheworld.amnh.org/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. DOI: 10.5531/db.vz.0001 Pseudis bolbodactyla . Accessed on 16 Apr 2008.
2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN: Pseudis bolbodactyla (Least Concern) Downloaded on 16 April 2008.

Pseudis bolbodactyla is a species of frog in the family Hylidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in Minas Gerais, southern Goiás, southern Bahia, and northern Espírito Santo states.[1][2] Although it is currently considered a valid species, it has also been treated as a subspecies of Pseudis paradoxa.[1][2]

Description

Adult males measure 34–45 mm (1.3–1.8 in) and adult females 38–51 mm (1.5–2.0 in) in snout–vent length. The overall appearance is robust. The head is about as wide as it is long and the snout is rounded. The tympanum is distinct, elliptical in shape. The eyes are big. The toes are fully webbed. Skin is dorsally rugose with many tiny tubercles. Preserved specimens are dorsally brown, with darker markings that may be interconnected but do not form any regular pattern.[3]

A Gosner stage 39 tadpole measures 130 mm (5.1 in) in total length, of which the body makes 39 mm (1.5 in); the tail is thick and lanceolate.[3]
Habitat and ecology

This almost purely aquatic species occurs in lakes, ponds and other bodies of water in Cerrado and Caatinga savanna at elevations below 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[1] One study suggests that it only occurs in ponds with aquatic vegetation.[4] It is often found floating at the water surface,[1] anchored motionless to the leaves of aquatic plants, with only the eyes, nostrils, and tympanum out of the water. It appears to use both visual and sensory clues to detect threats, to which it responds by diving.[4] Breeding takes place in water.[1]

Pseudis bolbodactyla is active both day and night. A study from Goiás found diet consisting primarily of insects, with a minor contribution of arachnids. The majority of the diet were diurnal insects associated with vegetation. Aquatic insects made a small contribution, and then as winged adults only. Pseudis bolbodactyla appears to be an opportunistic sit-and-wait predator.[4]
Conservation

Pseudis bolbodactyla is a common species that can suffer from overgrazing by domestic livestock, infrastructure development (including dams), and water pollution from agriculture. It is present in some protected areas.[1]

References

Ulisses Caramaschi, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz, Débora Silvano (2004). "Pseudis bolbodactyla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T55900A11384345. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T55900A11384345.en. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
Frost, Darrel R. (2019). "Pseudis bolbodactyla Lutz, 1925". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
Caramaschi, Ulisses & Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da (December 1998). "Notas taxonômicas sobre Pseudis fusca Garman e P. bolbodactyla A. Lutz, com a descrição de uma nova espécie correlata (Anura, Pseudidae)" [Taxonomic notes on Pseudis fusca Garman and P. bolbodactyla A. Lutz, with description of a new correlated species (Anura, Pseudidae)]. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (in Portuguese). 15 (4): 929–944. doi:10.1590/S0101-81751998000400011.
Brandão, Reuber A.; Garda, Adrian; Braz, Vívian & Fonseca, Bárbara (2003). "Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae) in central Brazil". Phyllomedusa. 2 (1): 3–8. doi:10.11606/issn.2316-9079.v2i1p03-08.

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