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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Bufonidae
Genus: Rhinella
Species: R. abei – R. achalensis – R. achavali – R. acrolopha – R. acutirostris – R. alata – R. amabilis – R. amboroensis – R. arborescandens – R. arenarum – R. arequipensis – R. arunco – R. atacamensis – R. azarai – R. beebei – R. bergi – R. bernardoi – R. boulengeri – R. casconi – R. castaneotica – R. centralis – R. ceratophrys – R. cerradensis – R. chavin – R. chrysophora – R. cristinae – R. crucifer – R. dapsilis – R. diptycha – R. dorbignyi –R. fernandezae – R. festae – R. fissipes – R. gallardoi – R. gnustae – R. granulosa – R. henseli – R. hoogmoedi – R. horribilis – R. icterica – R. inca – R. inopinus – R. iserni – R. jimi – R. justinianoi – R. leptoscelis – R. lescurei – R. lilyrodriguezae – R. limensis – R. lindae – R. macrorhina – R. magnussoni – R. major – R. manu – R. margaritifera – R. marina – R. martyi – R. merianae – R. mirandaribeiroi – R. multiverrucosa – R. nattereri – R. nesiotes – R. nicefori – R. ocellata – R. ornata – R. paraguayensis – R. poeppigii – R. pombali – R. proboscidea – R. pygmaea – R. quechua – R. roqueana – R. rostrata – R. rubescens – R. rubropunctata – R. ruizi – R. rumbolli – R. schneideri – R. scitula – R. sclerocephala – R. spinulosa – R. stanlaii – R. sternosignata – R. tacana – R. tenrec – R. truebae – R. vellardi – R. veraguensis – R. veredas – R. yanachaga – R. yunga
Name

Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826

Type species: Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) proboscideus Spix, 1824
Synonymy

Oxyrhynchus Spix, 1824
Chaunus Wagler, 1828
Otilophis Cuvier, 1829
Phryniscus Wiegmann, 1834
Osilophus — Tschudi, 1838
Otolophus Fitzinger, 1843
Trachycara Tschudi, 1845
Aruncus Philippi, 1902
Stenodactylus Philippi, 1902
Rhamphophryne Trueb, 1971
Atelophryniscus McCranie, Wilson & Williams, 1989

References

Ávila, R.W.; Pansonato, A.; Strüssmann, C. 2010: A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera group (Anura: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Pantanal. Zootaxa, 2339: 57–68. Preview
Andrade, S.P., Rocha, C.F., Victor-Junior, E.P. & Vaz-Silva, W. 2015: Advertisement call of Rhinella inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo & Pombal, 2012 (Anura: Bufonidae) from the type-locality, northeastern Goiás State, Central Brazil. Zootaxa 3931(3): 448–450. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3931.3.10. Reference page.
Cusi, J.C., Moravec, J., Lehr, E. & Gvoždík, V. 2017. A new species of semiarboreal toad of the Rhinella festae group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru. ZooKeys 673: 21–47. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.673.13050. Reference page.
Dubois, A.; Ohler, A. 2009: The status of the amphibian nomina created by Merrem (1820) and Ritgen (1828). Zootaxa, 2247: 1–36. Abstract & excerpt
Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 39.
Grant, T.; Bolívar-G., W. 2014: A new species of semiarboreal toad with a salamander-like ear (Anura: Bufonidae: Rhinella). Herpetologica 70(2): 198–210. DOI: 10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-13-00082R1 Reference page.
2011: Zootaxa, 3092: 26–42. Preview
2011: Zootaxa, 3092: 60–62. Preview
Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, and D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58: 2517–2535.
Amphibian Species of the World 5.2 Rhinella access date 25 July 2008
Padial, J.M.; Chaparro, J.C.; Köhler, J.; De La Riva, I. 2009: Rediscovery, resurrection and redescription of Rhinella leptoscelis (Boulenger, 1912) (Anura: Bufonidae). Zootaxa, 2115: 56–64. Abstract & excerpt
Sanabria, E.; Quiroga, L.; Arias, F.; Cortez, R. 2010: A new species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae) from Ischigualasto Provincial Park, San Juan, Argentina. Zootaxa, 2396: 50–60. Preview
De Morais, A.R. et al. 2012: Description of the advertisement call of Rhinella mirandaribeiroi (Gallardo, 1965) (Anura: Bufonidae). Zootaxa, 3265: 66–68. Preview
Vaz-Silva, W.; Valdujo, P.H.; Pombal, J.P., jr. 2012: New species of the Rhinella crucifer group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Zootaxa, 3265: 57–65. Preview
Caramaschi, U. 2012: The generic position of Rhinella skuki Caramaschi, 2012 (Anura, Bufonidae). Zootaxa 3527: 88–88. Preview PDF Reference page.
Oliveira, M.I.R.R. De, Weber, L.N. & Napoli, M.F. 2013. Internal oral morphology in larvae of the genus Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Zootaxa 3745(5): 501–523. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3745.5.1 Reference page.
Oliveira, M.I.R.R. De, Weber, L.N. & Napoli, M.F. 2015. MARIANNA ISABELLA ROSA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA, LUIZ NORBERTO WEBER & MARCELO FELGUEIRAS NAPOLI (2013) Internal oral morphology in larvae of the genus Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Zootaxa, 3745 (5): 501–523. (ERRATUM). Zootaxa 4039(4): 599–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4039.4.10. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
ZooBank
ZooBank

Rhinella, commonly known as South American toads, beaked toads or Rio Viejo toads, is a genus of true toads native to Neotropical parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Additionally, the cane toad has been introduced to Australia, the Caribbean, the Philippines and elsewhere.

Originally, all species of the genus Rhinella were included in the genus Bufo, then they were split into the genera Chaunus and Rhamphophryne. However, Chaunus and Rhamphophryne are now considered synonyms of Rhinella.[1]

Etymology

Rhinella means ‘little nose’, from rhino- (ῥῑνο-), the combining form of the Ancient Greek rhis (ῥίς, ‘nose’) and the Latin diminutive suffix -ella.[2]
Chaunus is the Latinised form of the Ancient Greek chaûnos (χαῦνος, ‘porous, spongy’).[3][4]
Rhamphophryne, meaning “beaked toad”, is from rhamphos (ῥάµϕος, ‘beak’)[5] and phrunē (φρύνη, ‘toad’).[2]

Species

The following species are recognised in the genus Rhinella:[6]
Binomial name and author Common name
Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004)
Rhinella achalensis (Cei, 1972) Cordoba toad
Rhinella achavali (Maneyro, Arrieta, & de Sá, 2004)
Rhinella acrolopha (Trueb, 1971) Cerro Mali beaked toad
Rhinella acutirostris (Spix, 1824)
Rhinella alata (Thominot, 1884)
Rhinella amabilis (Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003)
Rhinella amboroensis (Harvey & Smith, 1993) Cochabamba toad
Rhinella arborescandens (Duellman & Schulte, 1992) Mendoza Pass toad
Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) Common toad; Argentine toad
Rhinella arequipensis (Vellard, 1959) Rio Chili toad
Rhinella arunco (Molina, 1782) Arunco; Concepcion toad
Rhinella atacamensis (Cei, 1962) Vallenar toad; Atacama toad
Rhinella azarai (Gallardo, 1965)
Rhinella beebei (Gallardo, 1965) Rivero's Toad
Rhinella bergi (Céspedez, 2000)
Rhinella bernardoi Sanabria, Quiroga, Arias, and Cortez, 2010
Rhinella casconi Roberto, Brito, and Thomé, 2014
Rhinella castaneotica (Caldwell, 1991) Para toad
Rhinella centralis Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009
Rhinella ceratophrys (Boulenger, 1882) Horned toad
Rhinella cerradensis Maciel, Brandão, Campos, and Sebben, 2007
Rhinella chavin (Lehr, Köhler, Aguilar & Ponce, 2001)
Rhinella chrysophora (McCranie, Wilson & Williams, 1989) Rio Viejo toad
Rhinella chullachaki (2021)
Rhinella cristinae (Vélez-Rodriguez & Ruiz-Carranza, 2002)
Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) Striped toad
Rhinella dapsilis (Myers & Carvalho, 1945) Bom Jardim toad
Rhinella diptycha (Cope, 1862) Cope's toad; cururu toad
Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Dorbigny's toad
Rhinella exostosica Ferrão, Lima, Ron, dos Santos & Hanken, 2020[7]
Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957) Bella Vista toad
Rhinella festae (Peracca, 1904) Valle Santiago beaked toad
Rhinella fissipes (Boulenger, 1903) Carabaya toad
Rhinella gallardoi (Carrizo, 1992) Gallardo's toad
Rhinella gildae Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Bastos, and Pombal, 2015
Rhinella gnustae (Gallardo, 1967) Rio Grande toad
Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824) Common lesser toad
Rhinella henseli (Lutz, 1934)
Rhinella hoogmoedi (Caramaschi & Pombal, 2006)
Rhinella horribilis (Wiegmann, 1833) Cane toad
Rhinella humboldti (Gallardo, 1965) Rivero's toad
Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824) Yellow Cururu toad
Rhinella inca (Stejneger, 1913) Inca toad
Rhinella inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo, and Pombal, 2012
Rhinella iserni (Jiménez de la Espada, 1875) Rio Perene toad
Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) Cururu toad
Rhinella justinianoi (Harvey & Smith, 1994) El Chape toad
Rhinella leptoscelis (Boulenger, 1912)
Rhinella lescurei Fouquet, Gaucher, Blanc and Velez-Rodriguez, 2007
Rhinella lilyrodriguezae Cusi, Moravec, Lehr, and Gvoždík, 2017 Lily Rodriguez's beaked toad
Rhinella limensis (Werner, 1901) Peru Coast toad
Rhinella lindae (Rivero & Castaño, 1990) Murri beaked toad
†Rhinella loba Pérez-Ben, Gómez & Báez, 2019[8]
Rhinella macrorhina (Trueb, 1971) Santa Rita beaked toad
Rhinella magnussoni Lima, Menin, and Araújo, 2007
Rhinella major (Müller and Hellmich, 1936)
Rhinella manu Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007
Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti, 1768) South American common toad
Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Cane toad
Rhinella martyi Fouquet, Gaucher, Blanc and Velez-Rodriguez, 2007
Rhinella merianae (Gallardo, 1965)
Rhinella mirandaribeiroi (Gallardo, 1965)
Rhinella multiverrucosa (Lehr, Pramuk & Lundberg, 2005)
Rhinella nattereri (Bokermann, 1967)
Rhinella nesiotes (Duellman & Toft, 1979) Laguna toad
Rhinella nicefori (Cochran & Goin, 1970) Colombian beaked toad
Rhinella ocellata (Günther, 1858) Ocellated toad
Rhinella ornata Spix, 1824
Rhinella paraguas Grant and Bolívar-Garcías, 2014
Rhinella paraguayensis Ávila, Pansonato, and Strüssmann, 2010
Rhinella poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845) Gray toad
Rhinella proboscidea (Spix, 1824) Beaked toad
Rhinella pygmaea (Myers & Carvalho, 1952) Rio Parahyba toad
Rhinella quechua (Gallardo, 1961) Incachaca toad
Rhinella roqueana (Melin, 1941)
Rhinella rostrata (Noble, 1920) Mesopotamia beaked toad
Rhinella rubescens (Lutz, 1925)
Rhinella rubropunctata (Guichenot, 1848) Rusty toad
Rhinella ruizi (Grant, 2000)
Rhinella rumbolli (Carrizo, 1992) Salta toad
Rhinella scitula (Caramaschi & de Niemeyer, 2003)
Rhinella sclerocephala (Mijares-Urrutia & Arends-R., 2001)
Rhinella sebbeni Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Bastos, and Pombal, 2015
Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834) Warty toad; Huanuco toad
Rhinella stanlaii (Lötters & Köhler, 2000)
Rhinella sternosignata (Günther, 1858) Falcon toad
Rhinella tacana (Padial, Reichle, McDiarmid, & De la Riva, 2006)
Rhinella tenrec (Lynch & Renjifo, 1990) Antioquia Beaked Toad
Rhinella truebae (Lynch & Renjifo, 1990) Trueb's Beaked Toad
Rhinella vellardi (Leviton & Duellman, 1978) Alto Maranon toad
Rhinella veraguensis (Schmidt, 1857) Veragua toad
Rhinella veredas (Brandão, Maciel, and Sebben, 2007)
Rhinella yanachaga Lehr, Pramuk, Hedges, and Córdova, 2007
Rhinella yunga (Mordavec, Lehr, 2014)
Notes

Chaparro, Juan Carlos, Jennifer B. Pramuk and Andrew G. Gluesenkamp. 2007. A new species of arboreal Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae) from a cloud forest of southeastern Peru. Herpetologica. 63 (2): 203-212.
Dodd, C. Kenneth (2013). Frogs of the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-4214-0633-6.
d'Orbigny, Charles (1845). Dictionnaire universel d'histoire naturelle (in French). Vol. 3. Bureau Principal de l'Éditeurs. p. 433.
χαῦνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
"rhamphoid". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
"Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 | Amphibian Species of the World". research.amnh.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
Ferrão, Miquéias; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Ron, Santiago; Santos, Sueny Paloma dos; Hanken, James (2020-12-28). "New Species of Leaf-litter Toad of the Rhinella margaritifera Species Group (Anura: Bufonidae) from Amazonia". Copeia. 108 (4): 967–986. doi:10.1643/CH2020043. ISSN 0045-8511.

Pérez-Ben, Celeste M.; Gómez, Raúl O.; Báez, Ana M. (2019-04-04). "A new Pliocene true toad (Anura: Bufonidae): first record of an extinct species from South America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39: e1576183. doi:10.1080/02724634.2019.1576183. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 133110392.

References

Frost, Darrel (2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–371.

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