Hellenica World

Saxicola torquatus

Saxicola torquatus, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Muscicapoidea
Familia: Muscicapidae
Genus: Saxicola

Species: Saxicola torquatus
Subspecies: S. t. adamauae - S. t. albofasciata - S. t. altivagus - S. t. amkaratae - S. t. clanceyi - S. t. felix - S. t. jebelmarrae - S. t. moptanus - S. t. nebularum - S. t. oreobates - S. t. pallidigula - S. t. promiscuus - S. t. salax - S. t. sibilla - S. t. stonei - S. t. torquatus - S. t. tsaratanae - S. t. voeltzkowi

Name

Saxicola torquatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Synonyms

Saxicola torquata

Saxicola torquatus (*)

Vernacular Names
Internationalization
Afrikaans: Bontrokkie, Gewone Bontrokkie
العربية: البرقش المطوق, القليعي المطوق, بريقش زياني, قليعي مطوق
Ελληνικά : Μαυρολαίμης (Ευρωπαϊκός)
English: African Stonechat
Français: Tarier d'Afrique
Italiano: Saltimpalo africano
日本語: アフリカノビタキ 'afurikanobitaki'
Kiswahili: Mhozo Kichwa-cheusi
Nederlands: Afrikaanse Roodborsttapuit
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Afrikasvartstrupe


Reference

Systema Naturae ed.12 p.328

The African Stonechat (Saxicola torquatus) is a species of the Old World flycatcher family (Muscicapidae), inhabiting sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent regions. Like the other chats, it was long assigned to the thrush family (Turdidae), to which the chats are convergent. Its scientific name refer to its appearance and habitat and means "collared rock-dweller": Saxicola from Latin saxum ("rock") + incola ("one who dwells in a place"), torquatus, Latin for "collared".

In the past S. torquatus usually referred to the entire "Common Stonechat" superspecies and some sources[1] still keep it that way, but all available evidence strongly supports full species status for the European (S. rubicola) and the Siberian Stonechat (S. maurus) of temperate Eurasia, in addition to the island-endemics Fuerteventura Chat (S. dacotiae) and Réunion Stonechat (S. tectes) which were never unequivocally accepted into S. torquata. Also, the well-marked populations of the Horn of Africa uplands (and Arabia?) and Madagascar (and Grande Comore?) may well qualify as yet additional species.[2]


Description and distribution

The males have a black head, a white half-collar, a black back, a white rump, and a black tail; the wings are black with a large white patch on the top side of the inner wing. The upper breast is usually dark orange-red, with a sharp or gradual transition to white or pale orange on the lower breast and belly depending on subspecies. In a few, black replaces the orange breast feathers in part or entirely.[3]

Females have brown rather than black above and on the head with an indistinct paler eyebrow line, chestnut-buff rather than orange below, and less white on the wings. Both sexes' plumage is somewhat duller and streakier outside the breeding season.[3]

It has a scattered distribution across much of sub-Saharan Africa, occurring locally as far north as Senegal and Ethiopia. Outlying populations are found the mountains of southwest Arabia and on Madagascar and Grande Comore. It is non-migratory, moving only locally if at all. As a result, it has developed much regional variation, being divided into about 15 subspecies.[3]

Systematics and taxonomy

The closest relative of this species are apparently not the Eurasian populations but the Réunion Stonechat (S. tectes), but still the "white-collared" Saxicola form a distinct group in the genus. S. torquatus and S. tectes form a sub-Saharan African lineage that diverged from the Eurasian one in the Late Pliocene, roughly 2.5 million years ago. Réunion was colonized shortly thereafter, indicating a rapid expansion along the Indian Ocean coast of Africa. With the Sahara drying out in the subsequent Quaternary glaciation, the African and Eurasian populations became isolated for good.[4]

The recent separation as species was proposed after mtDNA cytochrome b sequence and nDNA microsatellite fingerprinting analysis of specimens of the subspecies Saxicola torquatus axillaris but not S. t. torquatus, and hence this species was briefly known as S. axillaris.[4]

Subspecies

The subspecies differ slightly in size, and more in the extent of the orange-red on the upper breast of the males, and whether the lower breast is white with a distinct boundary from the upper breast, or pale orange with an indistinct boundary from the darker upper breast. The extent of the orange-red also varies with time of year, often extending on to the belly outside the breeding season.[3]

* Saxicola torquatus torquatus (Linnaeus, 1766) – E South Africa
* Saxicola (torquatus) sibilla (Linnaeus, 1766), Madagascar Stonechat – Madagascar
* Saxicola (torquatus) albofasciatus (Rüppell, 1845)[verification needed], Ethiopian Stonechat – Ethiopian highlands

Upper breast black, not orange-red.

* Saxicola torquatus salax (J. & E.Verreaux, 1851)[verification needed] – N Angola, W Zaire, Congo, Gabon
* Saxicola torquatus axillaris (Shelley, 1884)[verification needed] – Kenya, Uganda, NW Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, E Zaire
* Saxicola torquatus pallidigula (Reichenow, 1892) – High altitudes on Mount Cameroon, Cameroon

The largest subspecies. Length of flattened wing c.75-78 mm (3 in).[5]

* Saxicola torquatus jebelmarrae Lynes, 1920[verification needed] – Darfur (Sudan)
* Saxicola torquatus adamauae Grote, 1922[verification needed] – Cameroon

Mid-sized, length of flattened wing c.70 mm (c.2.7 in).[5]

* Saxicola torquatus promiscuus Hartert, 1922[verification needed] – Western Mozambique, eastern Zambia, central Tanzania

Very limited orange-red on uppermost part of breast only.

* Saxicola torquatus voeltzkowi Grote, 1926[verification needed] – Grande Comore
* Saxicola torquatus nebularum Bates, 1930[verification needed] – Tropical West Africa from Sierra Leone to Côte d'Ivoire

Extensive orange-red on breast and also flanks.

* Saxicola torquatus moptanus Bates, 1932[verification needed] – Scattered in the W Sahel from N Senegal to Niger

The smallest subspecies.

* Saxicola torquatus felix Bates, 1936[verification needed] – SW Saudi Arabia and W Yemen
* Saxicola torquatus oreobates Clancey, 1956[verification needed] – High altitudes in the Drakensberg and other mountains of Lesotho and immediately adjacent South Africa
* Saxicola torquatus stonei Bowen, 1932[verification needed] – C southern Africa, from northernmost South Africa north to Zaire and southwestern Tanzania
* Saxicola torquatus clanceyi Latimer, 1961[verification needed] – W South Africa
* Saxicola torquatus altivagus Clancey, 1988[verification needed] – E Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi

Previously included within promiscua, and very similar to it.


Footnotes

1. ^ E.g. BLI (2008)
2. ^ Wittmann et al. (1995), Urquhart & Bowley (2002), Wink et al. (2002), Woog et al. (2008)
3. ^ a b c d Urquhart & Bowley (2002)
4. ^ a b Wink et al. (2002)
5. ^ a b Boulton & Rand (1952)


References

* BirdLife International (BLI) (2008). Saxicola torquatus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 May 2009.
* Boulton, Rudyerd & Rand, A.L. (1952): A collection of birds from Mount Cameroon. Fieldiana Zool. 34(5): 35-64. Fulltext at the Internet Archive
* Urquhart, Ewan & Bowley, Adam (2002): Stonechats. A Guide to the Genus Saxicola. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6024-4
* Wink, M.; Sauer-Gürth, H. & Gwinner, E. (2002): Evolutionary relationships of stonechats and related species inferred from mitochondrial-DNA sequences and genomic fingerprinting. British Birds 95: 349-355. PDF fulltext
* Wittmann, U.; Heidrich, P.; Wink, M. & Gwinner, E. (1995): Speciation in the Stonechat (Saxicola torquata) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b-gene. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 33(2): 116-122. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.1995.tb00218.x HTML abstract
* Woog, Friederike; Wink, Michael; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Gonzalez, Javier; Helm, Barbara (2008): Distinct taxonomic position of the Madagascar stonechat (Saxicola torquatus sibilla) revealed by nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA. J. Ornithol. 149(3): 423–430. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.1995.tb00965.x PDF fulltext

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