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Cheirogaleidae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Strepsirrhini
Infraordo: Lemuriformes
Superfamilia: Cheirogaleoidea
Familia: Cheirogaleidae
Genera: Allocebus - Cheirogaleus - Microcebus - Mirza - Phaner

Name

Cheirogaleidae Gray, 1873

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Български: Лемури джуджета
Català: Quirogaleid
Deutsch: Katzenmakis
Español: Quirogaleidos
Français: Cheirogaleidés
Hrvatski: Patuljasti lemuri
Magyar: Törpemakifélék
Italiano: Cheirogaleidi
日本語: コビトキツネザル科
한국어: 난쟁이여우원숭이과
Lietuvių: Mažieji lemurai
Nederlands: Dwergmaki's
Polski: Lemurkowate
Português: Quirogaleídeos
Suomi: Pikkumakit
Svenska: Smålemurer (muslemurer; dvärg- och musmakier)
中文: 鼠狐猴科

References

* Cheirogaleidae on Mammal species of the World.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2 Volume Set edited by Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder
* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1872: 849 [1873].

Cheirogaleidae is the family of strepsirrhine primates that contains the various dwarf and mouse lemurs. Like all other lemurs, cheirogaleids live exclusively on the island of Madagascar.


Characteristics

Cheirogaleids are smaller than the other lemurs and, in fact, they are the smallest primates. They have a soft, long fur colored grey-brown to reddish on top with a generally brighter underbelly. Typically they have small ears, large, close set eyes, and long hind legs. Like all strepsirrhines they have fine claws at the second toe of the hind legs. They grow to a size of only 13 to 28 cm, with a tail that is very long, sometimes up to one and a half times as long as the body. They weigh no more than 500 grams, with some species weighing as little as 60 grams.[3]

Dwarf and mouse lemurs are nocturnal and arboreal. They are excellent climbers and can also jump far, using their long tail for balance. When on the ground (a rare occurrence) they move by hopping on their hind legs. They spend the day in tree hollows or leaf nests. Cheirogaleids are typically solitary but sometimes live together in pairs.

Their eyes possess a tapetum lucidum, a light-reflecting layer that improves their night vision. Some species, such as the Lesser Dwarf Lemur, store fat at the hind legs and the base of the tail and hibernate. Unlike lemurids, they have long upper incisors, although they do have the comb-like teeth typical of all strepsirhines. They have the dental formula: Upper: 2.1.3.3, lower: 2.1.3.3

Cheirogaleids are omnivores, eating fruits, flowers and leaves (and sometimes nectar) as well as insects, spiders and small vertebrates.[3]

The females usually have three pairs of nipples. After a meager 60 day gestation, they will bear two to four (usually two or three) young. After five to six weeks these are weaned and become fully mature near the end of their first year or sometime in their second year, depending on the species. In human care, they can live for up to 15 years, although their life expectancy in the wild is probably significantly shorter.

Classification

The five genera of cheirogaleids contain 32 species.[4][5][6][7]

* Infraorder Lemuriformes
o Family Cheirogaleidae
+ Genus Cheirogaleus: dwarf lemurs
# C. medius group
* Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus medius
* Southern Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus adipicaudatus
# C. major group
* Greater Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus major
* Furry-eared Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus crossleyi
* Lesser Iron-gray Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus minusculus
* Greater Iron-gray Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus ravus
* Sibree's Dwarf Lemur, Cheirogaleus sibreei
+ Genus Microcebus: mouse lemurs
# Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus
# Reddish-gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus griseorufus
# Golden-brown Mouse Lemur, Microcebus ravelobensis
# Northern Rufous Mouse Lemur, Microcebus tavaratra
# Sambirano Mouse Lemur, Microcebus sambiranensis
# Simmons' Mouse Lemur, Microcebus simmonsi
# Pygmy Mouse Lemur, Microcebus myoxinus
# Brown Mouse Lemur, Microcebus rufus
# Madame Berthe's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus berthae
# Goodman's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus lehilahytsara
# Jolly's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus jollyae
# MacArthur's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus macarthurii
# Mittermeier's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus mittermeieri
# Claire's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus mamiratra
# Bongolava Mouse Lemur, Microcebus bongolavensis
# Danfoss' Mouse Lemur, Microcebus danfossi
# Arnhold's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus arnholdi [7]
# Margot Marsh's Mouse Lemur, Microcebus margotmarshae [7]
+ Genus Mirza: giant mouse lemurs
# Coquerel's Giant Mouse Lemur or Coquerel's Dwarf Lemur, Mirza coquereli
# Northern Giant Mouse Lemur, Mirza zaza
+ Genus Allocebus
# Hairy-eared Dwarf Lemur, Allocebus trichotis
+ Genus Phaner: fork-crowned lemurs
# Masoala Fork-crowned Lemur, Phaner furcifer
# Pale Fork-crowned Lemur, Phaner pallescens
# Pariente's Fork-crowned Lemur, Phaner parienti
# Mt. d’Ambre Fork-crowned Lemur, Phaner electromontis

Footnotes

* a According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) naming rules, the historically correct name for this family should be Microcebina, but the name Cheirogaleidae has been retained for stability.[2]
* b In 2008, 7 new species of Microcebus were formally recognized, but Microcebus lokobensis (Lokobe Mouse Lemur) was not among the additions. Therefore its status as a species is still questionable.[4]

References

1. ^ Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M, eds. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 111–114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100005.
2. ^ a b McKenna, MC; Bell, SK (1997). Classification of Mammals: Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press. pp. 334. ISBN 0-231-11013-6.
3. ^ a b Martin, Robert D. (1984). Macdonald, D.. ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
4. ^ a b Mittermeier, R., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Glander, K., Tattersall, I., Groves, C., Rylands, A., Hapke, A., Ratsimbazafy, J., Mayor, M., Louis, E., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C. & Rasoloarison, R. (December 2008). "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology 29 (6): 1607–1656. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9317-y.
5. ^ Edward E. Louis, Melissa S. Coles, Rambinintsoa Andriantompohavana, Julie A. Sommer, Shannon E. Engberg, John R. Zaonarivelo, Mireya I. Mayor, Rick A. Brenneman (2006). "Revision of the Mouse Lemurs (Microcebus) of Eastern Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology 27 (2): 347–389. doi:10.1007/s10764-006-9036-1.
6. ^ Radespiel, Ute, et al. (2008). "Exceptional diversity of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in the Makira region with the description of one new species". American Journal of Primatology Forthcoming (11): n/a. doi:10.1002/ajp.20592. PMID 18626970.
7. ^ a b c Edward E. Louis, Jr., Shannon E. Engberg, Susie M. McGuire, Marilyn J. McCormick, Richard Randriamampionona, Jean Freddy Ranaivoarisoa, Carolyn A. Bailey, Russell A. Mittermeier and Runhua Lei (2008). "Revision of the Mouse Lemurs, Microcebus(Primates, Lemuriformes), of Northern and Northwestern Madagascar with Descriptions of Two New Species at Montagne d’Ambre National Park and Antafondro Classified Forest". Primate Conservation 2008 (23): 19–38. http://www.primate-sg.org/PDF/PC23.new.microcebus.V3.pdf.

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