Manis gigantea

Manis gigantea, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Pholidota
Familia: Manidae
Genus: Manis
Species: Manis gigantea

Manis gigantea, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Name

Manis gigantea Illiger, 1815

Synonyms

Smutsia gigantea

Vernacular names
Internationalization

Deutsch: Riesenschuppentier
English: Giant Pangolin
Polski: Pangolin olbrzymi

The Giant Pangolin (Manis gigantea) is a pangolin species. Members of the species inhabit Africa with a range stretching along the equator from west Africa to Uganda. The Giant Pangolin is the largest species of pangolin, or "scaly anteaters" – the large, scaled mammals belonging to the Manidae family. It subsists almost entirely on ants and termites. The species was first described by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in 1815.

Habitat, range, and endangered status

The Giant Pangolin inhabits many countries with the largest concentration in Uganda, Tanzania, and western Kenya. It is found mainly in the savanna, rainforest, and forest, inhabiting areas with large termite populations and available water. The Giant Pangolin does not inhabit high-altitude areas.

Due to habitat destruction and deforestation, the species is in great decline, and this together with the hunting of the Giant Pangolin as bushmeat and for the supposed medicinal properties of its scales has led to concerns about population levels. Because the species is nocturnal, few studies have been carried out. Currently the pangolin is classified as a "least concern" by the IUCN.
[edit] Physical description

The Giant Pangolin is the largest of all pangolin species. While its average mass has not been measured, one Giant Pangolin was found to weigh 33 kg (72.6 lbs). Males are larger than females, with male body length about 140 cm (4 feet, 7.1 inches) and female about 125 cm (4 feet, 1.2 inches). Like all pangolins, the species is armored with large, brown to reddish-brown scales formed from very tightly packed hair. Curiously, it also has eyelashes. The Giant Pangolin has a long snout, a long thick tail, and large front claws.

The animal has a strong sense of smell and large anal glands. Its secretions may be significant to animal communication. The species walks with most of its weight is on its columnar rear legs and curls its front paws, walking on the outside of the wrists rather than the palms to protect the claws. By using its tail for balance, the Giant Pangolin will often walk upright as a biped.
[edit] Behavior

The Giant Pangolin, like other pangolins, is motile and nocturnal, which makes observation difficult. It is also usually solitary, although in one case an adult Giant Pangolin was seen in a burrow with a juvenile. The species is capable of climbing trees and other objects.

Diet

Like all pangolins, the Giant Pangolin is a specialized insectivore that lacks teeth and the ability to chew. Its diet mainly consists of ants and termites, which it finds by tearing open anthills and termite nests, both subterranean and mound-type.

Because of its relatively large size, the Giant Pangolin is particularly well-suited to breaking open termite mounds, done by leaning on the mound and resting its weight on its tail, and then ripping into the mound with its front claws. The combination of weight and physical damage quickly leads to a partial collapse of the mound, exposing the termites. It eats the insects by picking them up with its sticky tongue, which is up to 16 inches long. Only the adults are strong enough to do this, their young having to follow behind their mothers, until they grow large enough to do it for themselves.

Reproduction

Very little information about the reproduction of the Giant Pangolin is known. Two birth records exist, with one litter in September and another in October, with the young weighing around 500 g. As in all pangolins, infants have soft scales that eventually harden and are born with open eyes. They cannot walk on their legs, but can move on their stomach.

References


^ Schlitter, Duane A. (16 November 2005). "Order Pholidota (pp. 530-531)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). p. 530. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
^ Pangolin Specialist Group (1996). Manis gigantea. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.


Sources

Ciszek, Deborah. "Manis gigantea (giant pangolin)." Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. June 1999. [1]
"Pangolin." African Wildlife Foundation. [2]

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