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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Colubridae
Subfamiliae (8): AhaetuliinaeColubrinaeCalamariinaeDipsadinaeGrayiinaeNatricinaePseudoxenodontinaeSibynophiinae

Name

Colubridae Oppel, 1811: 50, 69

Type genus: Coluber Linnaeus, 1758.
References
Primary references

Oppel, N.M. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodrom einer Naturgeschichte derselben. Joseph Lindauer: Munich. 86 pp. BHL

Additional references

Zaher, H. 1999. Hemipenial morphology of the South American Xenodontine snakes, with a proposal for a monophyletic Xenodontinae and a reappraisal of colubroid hemipenes. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 240: 1–168
Zug, G.R., Vitt, L.J. & Caldwell, J.P. 2001. Herpetology, 2nd ed. Academic Press San Diego, London.
Vidal, N., Delmas, A.-S., David, P., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A. & Hedges, S.B. 2007. The phylogeny and classification of caenophidian snakes inferred from seven nuclear protein-coding genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 330(2): 182–187. DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2006.10.001 Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Pyron, R.A., Burbrink, F.T. & Wiens, J.J. 2013. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:93. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-93 Open access Reference page.
Zheng, Y. & Wiens, J.J. 2016. Combining phylogenomic and supermatrix approaches, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) based on 52 genes and 4162 species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94(Part B): 537–547. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.10.009 Paywall Reference page.
Figueiroa, A., McKelvy, A.D., Grismer, L.L., Bell, C.D. & Lailvaux, S.P. 2016. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus. PLoS ONE 11(9): e0161070. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161070 Open access Reference page.

Vernacular names
aragonés: Cullebra
беларуская: Вужовыя
català: Colúbrid
čeština: Užovkovití
Deutsch: Nattern
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Bessa
English: Colubrid
español: Culebras
suomi: Tarhakäärmeet
français: Colubridae
עברית: זעמניים
hrvatski: Guževi
Bahasa Indonesia: Colubridae
italiano: Saettone
日本語: ナミヘビ科
ქართული: ანკარასებრნი
lietuvių: Žaltiniai
македонски: Смокови
ဘာသာ မန်: ဇြုံသ္ၚိ, ဇြံုရပ်ကၞိ
Nederlands: Gladde slangen
norsk: Snoker
polski: Połozowate
português: Colubridae
русский: Ужеобразные
svenska: Snokar
ไทย: วงศ์งูพิษเขี้ยวหลัง
українська: Вужеві
Tiếng Việt: Họ Rắn nước
中文: 新蛇下目

Colubridae (/kəˈluːbrɪdiː/, commonly known as colubrids /ˈkɒljʊbrɪdz/, from Latin: coluber, 'snake') is a family of snakes. With 249 genera,[1] it is the largest snake family. The earliest species of the family date back to the Oligocene epoch. Colubrid snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica.[2]

Description

While most colubrids are not venomous (or have venom that is not known to be harmful to humans) and are mostly harmless, a few groups, such as genus Boiga, can produce medically significant injuries. In addition, the boomslang, the twig snakes, and the Asian genus Rhabdophis have caused human fatalities.[2][3][4]

According to Scott Weinstein, author of "Venomous" Bites from Non-Venomous Snakes, more research needs to be done on the bites and venom of colubrids.[4] Some colubrids are described as opisthoglyphous (often called "rear-fanged"), meaning they have elongated, grooved teeth located in the back of their upper jaws. It is likely that opisthoglyphous dentition evolved many times in the history of snakes[3] and is an evolutionary precursor to the fangs of vipers and elapids, which are located in the front of the mouth.[5][6][7][2][3]
Classification

In the past, the Colubridae were not a natural group, as many were more closely related to other groups, such as elapids, than to each other.[8] This family was historically used as a "wastebasket taxon"[4] for snakes that do not fit elsewhere.[9] Until recently, colubrids were basically colubroids that were not elapids, viperids, or Atractaspis.[10]

However, recent research in molecular phylogenetics has stabilized the classification of historically "colubrid" snakes and the family as currently defined is a monophyletic clade,[11][12][13][14] although additional research will be necessary to sort out all the relationships within this group. As of May 2018, eight subfamilies are recognized.[15]
Current subfamilies

Sibynophiinae – two genera

Scaphiodontophis
Sibynophis

Natricinae – 37 genera (sometimes given as family Natricidae)
Two Indian rat snakes (grey and yellow)
A natricine, Thamnophis sirtalis

Adelophis
Afronatrix
Amphiesma
Amphiesmoides
Anoplohydrus
Aspidura
Atretium
Blythia [16]
Clonophis
Fowlea
Haldea
Hebius
Helophis
Herpetoreas
Hydrablabes
Hydraethiops
Iguanognathus
Isanophis
Limnophis
Liodytes
Natriciteres
Natrix
Nerodia
Opisthotropis
Paratapinophis
Pseudagkistrodon
Regina
Rhabdophis
Rhabdops
Smithophis
Storeria
Thamnophis
Trachischium
Trimerodytes
Tropidoclonion
Tropidonophis
Virginia
Xenochrophis

Pseudoxenodontinae – two genera

Plagiopholis
Pseudoxenodon

Dipsadinae – 100 genera (sometimes given as family Dipsadidae)
A dipsadine, Sibon longifrenis

Adelphicos
Alsophis
Amastridium
Amnesteophis
Apostolepis
Arcanumophis
Arrhyton
Atractus
Baliodryas
Boiruna
Borikenophis
Caaeteboia
Calamodontophis
Caraiba
Carphophis
Cenaspis
Cercophis
Chersodromus
Chlorosoma
Clelia
Coniophanes
Conophis
Contia
Coronelaps
Crisantophis
Cryophis
Cubophis
Diadophis
Diaphorolepis
Dipsas
Ditaxodon
Drepanoides
Echinanthera
Elapomorphus
Emmochliophis
Enuliophis
Enulius
Erythrolamprus
Eutrachelophis
Farancia
Geophis
Gomesophis
Haitiophis
Helicops
Heterodon
Hydrodynastes
Hydromorphus
Hydrops
Hypsiglena
Hypsirhynchus
Ialtris
Imantodes
Incaspis
Leptodeira
Lioheterophis
Lygophis
Magliophis
Manolepis
Mussurana
Ninia
Nothopsis
Omoadiphas
Oxyrhopus
Paraphimophis
Phalotris
Philodryas
Phimophis
Plesiodipsas
Pliocercus
Pseudalsophis
Pseudoboa
Pseudoeryx
Pseudoleptodeira
Pseudotomodon
Psomophis
Ptychophis
Rhachidelus
Rhadinaea
Rhadinella
Rhadinophanes
Rodriguesophis
Saphenophis
Sibon
Siphlophis
Sordellina
Synophis
Tachymenis
Taeniophallus
Tantalophis
Thamnodynastes
Thermophis
Tomodon
Tretanorhinus
Trimetopon
Tropidodipsas
Tropidodryas
Uromacer
Urotheca
Xenodon
Xenopholis
Xenoxybelis

Grayiinae – one genus

Grayia

Calamariinae – seven genera

Calamaria
Calamorhabdium
Collorhabdium
Etheridgeum
Macrocalamus
Pseudorabdion
Rabdion

Ahaetuliinae – five genera

Ahaetulla
Chrysopelea
Dendrelaphis
Dryophiops
Proahaetulla

Colubrinae – 93 genera
A colubrine, Dolichophis jugularis, preying on a legless lizard, a sheltopusik

Aeluroglena
Aprosdoketophis
Archelaphe
Argyrogena
Arizona
Bamanophis
Bogertophis
Boiga
Cemophora
Chapinophis
Chironius
Coelognathus
Coluber
Colubroelaps
Conopsis
Coronella
Crotaphopeltis
Dasypeltis
Dendrophidion
Dipsadoboa
Dispholidus
Dolichophis
Drymarchon
Drymobius
Drymoluber
Eirenis
Elaphe
Euprepiophis
Ficimia
Geagras
Gonyosoma
Gyalopion
Hapsidophrys
Hemerophis
Hemorrhois
Hierophis
Lampropeltis
Leptodrymus
Leptophis
Liopeltis
Lycodon
Lytorhynchus
Macroprotodon
Masticophis
Mastigodryas
Meizodon
Mopanveldophis
Muhtarophis
Oligodon
Oocatochus
Opheodrys
Oreocryptophis
Orientocoluber
Oxybelis
Palusophis
Pantherophis
Persiophis
Philothamnus
Phrynonax
Phyllorhynchus
Pituophis
Platyceps
Pseudelaphe
Pseudoficimia
Ptyas
Rhamnophis
Rhinobothryum
Rhinocheilus
Rhynchocalamus
Salvadora
Scaphiophis
Scolecophis
Senticolis
Simophis
Sonora
Spalerosophis
Spilotes
Stegonotus
Stenorrhina
Stichophanes
Symphimus
Sympholis
Tantilla
Tantillita
Telescopus
Thelotornis
Thrasops
Toxicodryas
Trimorphodon
Wallaceophis
Xenelaphis
Xyelodontophis
Zamenis

Former subfamilies

These taxa have been at one time or another classified as part of the Colubridae, but are now either classified as parts of other families, or are no longer accepted because all the species within them have been moved to other (sub)families.

Subfamily Aparallactinae (now a subfamily of Lamprophiidae,[13] sometimes combined with Atractaspidinae)
Subfamily Boiginae (now part of Colubrinae)
Subfamily Boodontinae (some of which now treated as subfamily Grayiinae of the new Colubridae, others moved to family Lamprophiidae as part of subfamilies Lamprophiinae, Pseudaspidinae and Pseudoxyrhophiidae, which are now sometimes treated as families)
Subfamily Dispholidinae (now part of Colubrinae)
Subfamily Homalopsinae (now family Homalopsidae)[13]
Subfamily Lamprophiinae (now a subfamily of Lamprophiidae)[13]
Subfamily Lycodontinae (now part of Colubrinae)
Subfamily Lycophidinae (now part of Lamprophiidae)
Subfamily Pareatinae (now family Pareidae,[13] sometimes incorrectly spelled Pareatidae)[17]
Subfamily Philothamninae (now part of Colubrinae)
Subfamily Psammophiinae (now a subfamily of Lamprophiidae)[13]
Subfamily Pseudoxyrhophiinae (now a subfamily of Lamprophiidae)[13]
Subfamily Xenoderminae (now family Xenodermidae,[13] sometimes incorrectly spelled Xenodermatidae)[17]
Subfamily Xenodontinae (which many authors put in Dipsadinae/Dipsadidae)

References

"Colubrid". britannica.com. Britannica. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
Bauer, Aaron M. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 188–195. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
Bruna Azara, C. (1995). "Animales venenosos. Vertebrados terrestres venenosos peligrosos para el ser humano en España" (PDF). Boletín de la S.E.A. 11: 32–40.
Weinstein, S. A.; Warrell, D. A.; White, J.; Keyler, D. E. (20 June 2011). "Venomous" bites from non-venomous snakes: A critical analysis of risk and management of "colubrid" snake bites. London: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/C2010-0-68461-6. ISBN 978-0-12-387732-1.
Jackson, K (2003). "The evolution of venom-delivery systems in snakes". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 137 (3): 337–354. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00052.x.
Vonk, F. J.; Admiraal, J. F.; Jackson, K.; Reshef, R.; de Bakker, M. A.; Vanderschoot, K.; van den Berge, I.; van Atten, M.; Burgerhout, E.; Beck, A. (2008). "Evolutionary origin and development of snake fangs" (PDF). Nature. 454 (7204): 630–633. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..630V. doi:10.1038/nature07178. PMID 18668106. S2CID 4362616. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2018-05-13.
Fry, B. G.; Casewell, N. R.; Wüster, W.; Vidal, N.; Young, B.; Jackson, T. N. (2012). "The structural and functional diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system" (PDF). Toxicon. 60 (4): 434–448. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.013. PMID 22446061.
Lawson, R.; Slowinski, J.B.; Crother, B.I.; Burbrink, F.T. (2005). "Phylogeny of the Colubroidea (Serpentes): New evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear genes" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 581–601. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.016. PMID 16172004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2010-12-08.
Fry, B.G.; Vidal, N.; van der Weerd, L.; Kochva, E.; Renjifo, C. (2009). "Evolution and diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system". Journal of Proteomics. 72 (2): 127–136. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2009.01.009. PMID 19457354.
Pough, F. H.; Andrews, R. M.; Cadle, J. E.; Crump, M. L.; Savitzky, A. H.; Wells, K. (2004). Herpetology (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall. p. 162. ISBN 0138508763.
Pyron, R. A.; Burbrink, F.; Wiens, J. J. (2013). "A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-93. PMC 3682911. PMID 23627680.
Figueroa, A.; McKelvy, A. D.; Grismer, L. L.; Bell, C. D.; Lailvaux, S. P. (2016). "A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus". PLOS ONE. 11 (9): e0161070. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1161070F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161070. PMC 5014348. PMID 27603205.
Pyron, R. A.; Burbrink, F. T.; Colli, G. R.; de Oca, A. N. M.; Vitt, L. J.; Kuczynski, C. A.; Wiens, J. J. (2011). "The phylogeny of advanced snakes (Colubroidea), with discovery of a new subfamily and comparison of support methods for likelihood trees" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 58 (2): 329–342. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.11.006. PMID 21074626.
Zheng, Y; Wiens, JJ (2016). "Combining phylogenomic and supermatrix approaches, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) based on 52 genes and 4162 species" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 94 (Pt B): 537–547. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.10.009. PMID 26475614.
Uetz, Peter. "Colubridae at The Reptile Database". The Reptile Database. EMBL. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
"Blythia reticulata".

Savage, Jay M. (2015). "What are the correct family names for the taxa that include the snake genera Xenodermus, Pareas, and Calamaria?". Herpetological Review. 46 (4): 664–665. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2018-05-14.

Bibliography

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Nicoli, Laura. 2015. New fossil species of the extant genus Lepidobatrachus (Anura, Ceratophryidae) from the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene of central Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35. e981636. Accessed 2019-02-13.
Agnolin, Federico L.; Sergio Bogan; Rodrigo L. Tomassini, and Teresa Manera. 2014. Nuevo Percichthyidae (Teleostei, Percoidei) del Plioceno temprano de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina) y sus implicancias biogeográficas. Revista del Museo de Ciencias Naturales 16. 19–31. Accessed 2018-09-10.
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