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Superregnum : Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Chondrostei
Ordo: Acipenseriformes
Familiae: Acipenseridae – †Peipiaosteidae – Polyodontidae
Acipenseridae - †Chondrosteidae - †Errolichthyidae -

References

Acipenseriformes in FishBase,
Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (eds.) 2022. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, www.fishbase.org, version 08/2021.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Асетрападобныя
čeština: Jeseteři
Deutsch: Störartige
eesti: Tuuralised
日本語: チョウザメ目
Türkçe: Mersin balıkları

Acipenseriformes /æsɪˈpɛnsərɪfɔːrmiːz/ is an order of basal[1] ray-finned fishes that includes living and fossil sturgeons and paddlefishes (Acipenseroidei), as well as the extinct families Chondrosteidae and Peipiaosteidae, and the more basal Eochondrosteus.[2][3][4]

Characteristics

Notable characteristics of Acipenseriformes include:

Cartilaginous endoskeleton
Lack of vertebral centrum
Spiral valve intestine
Conus arteriosus

Systematics

The classification is based on the work of Mikko Haaramo,[5] Neslon, Grande and Wilson 2016[6] and van der Laan 2016.[7]

Order Acipenseriformes Berg 1940
Genus †Hesperopsephurus Nesov 1997
Genus †Neochallaia Rusconi 1949
Genus †Psephuroides Nesov 1997
Family †Errolichthyidae Lehman 1952
Genus †Errolichthys Lehman 1952
Genus †Psilichthys Hall 1900 non Steindachner 1907
Suborder †Chondrosteoidei
Family incertae sedis
Genus †Eochondrosteus Lu, Li & Yang 2005[4]
Family †Chondrosteidae Huxley 1861
Genus †Chondrosteus Agassiz 1843 ex Egerton 1858
Genus †Gyrosteus Morris 1854
Genus †Strongylosteus Egerton 1858
Suborder †Peipiaosteoidei Grande & Bemis 1996
Family †Peipiaosteidae Liu & Zhou 1965
Genus †Gualolepis Lopez-Arbarello, Rogers & Puerta 2006
Subfamily †Spherosteinae Grande & Bemis 1996
Genus †Spherosteus Jakovlev 1968
Genus †Yanosteus Jin et al. 1995
Subfamily †Peipiaosteinae Liu & Zhou 1965
Genus †Peipiaosteus Liu & Zhou 1965
Genus †Stichopterus Reis 1909
Suborder Acipenseroidei Grande & Bemis 1996
Family Polyodontidae Bonaparte 1838 (Paddlefish)
Subfamily †Protopsephurinae Grande & Bemis 1996
Genus †Protopsephurus Lu 1994
Subfamily †Paleopsephurinae Grande & Bemis 1996
Genus †Paleopsephurus MacAlpin 1941a
Subfamily †Polyodontinae Grande & Bemis 1991 non Pflugfelder 1934
Genus †Crossopholis Cope 1883
Genus Polyodon Lacépède 1797 (American paddlefish)
Genus Psephurus Günther 1873 (Chinese paddlefish; likely extinct)[8]
Family Acipenseridae Bonaparte 1831 sensu Bemis et al. 1997 (Sturgeons)
Genus †Protoscaphirhynchus Wilimovsky 1956
Genus †Anchiacipenser Sato, Murray, Vernygora and Currie, 2019
Subfamily †Priscosturioninae Grande & Hilton 2009
Genus †Priscosturion Grande & Hilton 2009 [Psammorhynchus Grande & Hilton 2006]
Subfamily Acipenserinae Bonaparte 1831
Genus Acipenser Linnaeus 1758
Genus Huso J. F. Brandt & Ratzeburg 1833
Subfamily Scaphirhynchinae Gill 1890
Genus Scaphirhynchus Heckel 1835
Genus Pseudoscaphirhynchus Nikolskii 1900

Conservation

Most living species of Acipenseriformes are classified as threatened (mostly endangered or critically endangered) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

The Chinese paddlefish was last seen alive in 2003, and was considered to have gone extinct sometime between 2005 and 2010 by the Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute in their 2019 report.
Hybridization

A study published in 2020 reported a successful hybridization between a Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and an American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), indicating that the two species can breed with one another despite their lineages having been separated for hundreds of millions of years. This has marked the first successful hybridization between members of Acipenseridae and Polyodontidae.[9]
References

fish portal

Venkatesh, B. (December 2003). "Evolution and diversity of fish genomes". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 13 (6): 588–592. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2003.09.001.
Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Acipenseriformes" in FishBase. 05 2006 version.
Bemis, William E.; Findeis, Eric K.; Grande, Lance (1997). "An overview of Acipenseriformes". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 48: 25–71.
Lu, Liwu; Tan, Kai; Wang, Xi (2020). "Redescription of Eochondrosteus sinensis (Acipenseriformes, Actinopterygii) and its geological age". Earth Science Frontiers. 27 (6): 371–381.
Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Acipenseriformes – sturgeons and paddlefishes". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
van der Laan, Richard (2016). "Family-group names of fossil fishes".
Qiwei, W. "Psephurus gladius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2020.

Káldy, Jenő; Mozsár, Attila; Fazekas, Gyöngyvér; Farkas, Móni; Fazekas, Dorottya Lilla; Fazekas, Georgina Lea; Goda, Katalin; Gyöngy, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Balázs; Semmens, Kenneth; Bercsényi, Miklós (July 2020). "Hybridization of Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Brandt and Ratzeberg, 1833) and American Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula, Walbaum 1792) and Evaluation of Their Progeny". Genes. 11 (7): 753. doi:10.3390/genes11070753. PMC 7397225. PMID 32640744.

Martin Hochleithner and Joern Gessner, The Sturgeons and Paddlefishes of the World: Biology and Aquaculture
Martin Hochleithner, Joern Gessner, and Sergej Podushka, The Bibliography of Acipenseriformes
Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-05-17.

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