Poecilia sphenops

Poecilia sphenops

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Ordo: Cyprinodontiformes
Subordo: Aplocheiloidei
Familia: Poeciliidae
Subfamilia: Poeciliinae
Tribus: Poeciliini
Genus: Poecilia
Species: Poecilia sphenops

Vernacular names
Česky: Živorodka ostrotlamá

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Poecilia sphenops is a species of fish, of the genus Poecilia, known under the common name Molly; to distinguish it from its congeners, it is sometimes called Short-finned Molly or Common Molly. They inhabit fresh water streams, coastal brackish and marine waters of Mexico. The wild-type fish are a dull silvery color, often sprinkled black all over.

Contrary to popular belief, this species of fish is actually a freshwater species spending little time in brackish water before swimming back to their freshwater biotope. However, fish of the same species have been found in coastal sea waters, brackish swamps and freshwater streams happy and breeding. It appears Mollies are a hardy and highly adaptable species (this has been diluted over years of inter-breeding in tank-bred specimens).

This species is one of the ancestors of the black mollies, a number of melanistic breeds which are black all over. It is one of the most well-known aquarium fishes and nearly as easy to keep and prolific as guppies (for optimal health and breeding success, they demand fresh vegetable food like algae). There are several other popular breeds, like the golden molly nicknamed "24 karat", or the balloon molly, which however has a deformed spine and a decreased lifespan due to the associated health problems. Also, breeds with altered caudal fin structures like lyretails exist. The wild form is in fact quite rarely kept, as it has a rather plain silvery coloration suffused with brown and green hues. If given good care with ample sunlight, high water temperatures and fresh vegetables, they will, however, prove charming fish who make up for their somewhat plain coloration with their lively behavior.

The common molly can produce fertile hybrids with many Poecilia species, most importantly the sailfin molly. In the case of black hybrids, they are called midnight molly. These are very popular due to their impressive dorsal fins, but require a bit more attention and have a somewhat decreased lifespan - though certainly not as much as the deformed breeds.

The male black mollies generally tend to be mildly aggressive. Although they are compatible tankmates with fish like the tiger barbs, they will chase them.

Mollies rank as one of the most popular feeder fish due to high growth rate, birth size, and brood number.

References

* "Poecilia sphenops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=165904. Retrieved 30 January 2006.
* Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2005). "Poecilia sphenops" in FishBase. 10 2005 version.

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