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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Classis: Chondrichthyes
Subclassis: Elasmobranchii
Superordo: Rajomorphii
Ordo: Rajiformes
Superfamilia: Dasyatoidea
Familia: Potamotrygonidae
Genus: Potamotrygon
Species: P. boesemani - P. brachyura - P. castexi - P. constellata - P. falkneri - P. henlei - P. hystrix - P. leopoldi - P. magdalenae - P. marinae - P. motoro - P. ocellata - P. orbignyi - P. schroederi - P. schuhmacheri - P. scobina - P. signata - P. yepezi


Potamotrygon Garman, 1877

Potamotrygon is a genus of freshwater stingrays native to the rivers of South America. As of July 2006, FishBase lists seventeen distinct species. The type species is P. hystrix.

Freshwater stingrays of the genus Potamotrygon are sometimes kept as exotic aquarium fish; though freshwater stingray of other genera do appear in the trade, most are from this genus. They are best kept with a deep, sandy substrate, in which they bury themselves, often with only the eyes visible. They are not territorial with other animals and can be kept in groups, provided a large enough aquarium is provided. They are carnivorous bottom feeders and require strong filtration as they are rather sensitive to water conditions.[1] Many species of stingray have been bred in captivity, and males can be determined by the presence of claspers as in other Chondrichthyans.

Like other stingrays, the fishes of this genus have venomous barbs at the base of their tails, and are dangerous species to humans.[1][2] It is said that the natives of South America fear the stingray more than they do the piranha.[3]

An undescribed type is referred to as the Itaituba river stingray or P14 (a P-number system is sometimes used by aquarists, similar to the L-number system). This fish is superficially similar to P. henlei and P. leopoldi except for smaller spots and in larger number.
Species list

Potamotrygon boesemani Rosa, Carvalho & Almeida Wanderley, 2008[4]
Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther, 1880) (Short-tailed river stingray)
Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant, 1880) (Thorny river stingray)
Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 (Largespot river stingray)
Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau, 1855) (Bigtooth river stingray)
Potamotrygon humerosa Garman, 1913
Potamotrygon hystrix (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1834) (Porcupine river stingray)
Potamotrygon leopoldi Castex & Castello, 1970 (White-blotched river stingray)
Potamotrygon magdalenae (A. H. A. Duméril, 1865) (Magdalena river stingray)
Potamotrygon marinae Deynat, 2006
Potamotrygon motoro (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841) (Ocellate river stingray)
Potamotrygon ocellata (Engelhardt, 1912) (Red-blotched river stingray)
Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) (Smooth back river stingray)
Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez, 1958 (Rosette river stingray)
Potamotrygon schuhmacheri Castex, 1964
Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913 (Raspy river stingray)
Potamotrygon signata Garman, 1913 (Parnaiba river stingray)
Potamotrygon tatianae J. P. C. B. da Silva & Carvalho, 2011
Potamotrygon tigrina Carvalho, Sabaj Pérez & Lovejoy, 2011[5]
Potamotrygon yepezi Castex & Castello, 1970 (Maracaibo river stingray)


^ a b Dawes, John (2001). Complete Encyclopedia of the Freshwater Aquarium. New York: Firefly Books Ltd. ISBN 1-55297-544-4..
^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). Species of Potamotrygon in FishBase. June 2011 version.
^ Axelrod, Herbert, R. (1996). Exotic Tropical Fishes. T.F.H. Publications.. ISBN 0-87666-543-1.
^ Rosa, de Carvalho & Wanderley (2008). "Potamotrygon boesemani (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae), a new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray from Surinam". Neotropical Ichthyology 6 (1): 1–8.
^ de Carvalho, Perez & Lovejoy (2011). "Potamotyrgon tigrina, a new species of freshwater stingray from the upper Amazon basin, closely related to Potamotrygon schroederi Fernandez-Yepez, 1958 (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae)". Zootaxa 2827: 1–30.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License