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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Phyllanthaceae
Subfamilia: Antidesmatoideae
Tribus: Antidesmateae
Sybtribus: Antidesmatinae
Genus: Antidesma
Species: A. acidum – A. alexiteria – A. ambiguum – A. annamense – A. baccatum – A. bhargavae – A. brachybotrys – A. brevipes – A. bunius – A. catanduanense – A. celebicum – A. chalaranthum – A. chonmon – A. cochinchinense – A. comptum – A. concinnum – A. contractum – A. coriaceum – A. costulatum – A. cruciforme – A. curranii – A. cuspidatum – A. dallachyanum – A. digitaliforme – A. eberhardtii – A. edule – A. elassophyllum – A. elbertii – A. erostre – A. excavatum – A. ferrugineum – A. forbesii – A. fordii – A. fruticosum – A. fruticulosum – A. ghaesembilla – A. gillespieanum – A. hainanense – A. helferi – A. heterophyllum – A. insulare – A. japonicum – A. jayasuriyae – A. jucundum – A. keralense – A. khasianum – A. kunstleri – A. laciniatum – A. laurifolium – A. leucocladon – A. leucopodum – A. macgregorii – A. maclurei – A. madagascariense – A. membranaceum – A. messianianum – A. microcarpum – A. minus – A. montanum – A. montis-silam – A. myriocarpum – A. neurocarpum – A. nienkui – A. nigricans – A. oblongum – A. orthogyne – A. pachybotryum – A. pachystachys – A. pacificum – A. pahangense – A. parvifolium – A. pendulum – A. petiolatum – A. phanrangense – A. platyphyllum – A. pleuricum – A. poilanei – A. polystylum – A. pulvinatum – A. puncticulatum – A. pyrifolium – A. rhynchophyllum – A. riparium – A. roxburghii – A. rufescens – A. sinuatum – A. sootepense – A. spatulifolium – A. stipulare – A. subbicolor – A. subcordatum – A. tetrandrum – A. tomentosum – A. tonkinense – A. trichophyllum – A. vaccinioides – A. velutinosum – A. velutinum – A. venenosum – A. venosum – A. vogelianum

Nothospecies: A. × kapuae
Name

Antidesma Burm. ex L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1027. (1753)

Type species: Antidesma alexiteria L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1027. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Bestram Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 354 (1763)
Stilago L., Mant. Pl. 1: 16 (1767)
Rhytis Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 660 (1790)
Rubina Noronha, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5(4): 3 (1790), nom. nud.
Coulejia Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab.: 31 (1818)
Minutalia Fenzl, Flora 27: 312 (1844), nom. nud.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 1027.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Antidesma in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr. 8. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. Apr. 8. Antidesma. Published online. Accessed: {{{3}}} Apr. 8.
Tropicos.org 2020. Antidesma. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr. 8.

Antidesma is a genus of tropical plant in the family Phyllanthaceae formally described by Linnaeus in 1753.[3][1] It is native to tropical Africa, S + E + SE Asia, Australia, and various oceanic islands. The greatest diversity occurs in Southeast Asia.[2][4][5][6]

Description

Antidesma is a variable genus which may be short and shrubby or tall and erect, approaching 30 metres in height. It has large oval shaped leathery evergreen leaves up to about 20 centimetres long and seven wide. The flowers have a strong, somewhat unpleasant scent. The staminate flowers are arranged in small bunches and the pistillate flowers grow on long racemes which will become the long strands of fruit. The fruits are spherical and just under a centimeter wide, hanging singly or paired in long, heavy bunches. They are white when immature and gradually turn red, then black. When they are still white they have sour and astringent taste, sour taste when they are red and have sweet and sour taste when they are black.

The evergreen (sometimes deciduous) simple leaves have fine hairs and show no glands. They grow in an alternate arrangement, with entire, symmetrical blades. They are connected to the stem with a petiole (leaf stalk) and stipules (appendage at the base of a leaf stalk).

The flowers grow in a raceme, with 1 bract per flower, on a short pedicel (tiny stalk, supporting a single flower). Their color is light yellowish green, but may turn red when mature. These plants are dioecious, i.e. unisexual, with male and female flowers on separate plants. There are 3 to 8 fused sepals, but no petals. The male flowers have 2 to 8 stamens, but no pistils. The female flowers have 2 to 6 stigmas. They have a 1-locular ovary with 2 ovules.

The globose to ellipsoid fruits resemble a drupe. Their color varies from green to white, red and black. The fleshy and juicy fruits are edible with a sour to bitter sweet taste. Some individuals find Antidesma bunius berries to have a bitter taste. Those who detect this bitter taste (about 15% of subjects tested) cannot taste PTC, and similarly those who can taste PTC (about 68% of the subjects) cannot taste any bitterness in Antidesma bunius, while a minority of people cannot taste bitterness in either.[7][8]
Species

There are 101 accepted species in the genus, as of May 2021. They are:[9]

Antidesma acidum Retz. - Indian Subcontinent, SE Asia, Java, S China
Antidesma alexiteria L. - S India, Sri Lanka
Antidesma ambiguum Pax & K.Hoffm. - Yunnan, Vietnam
Antidesma annamense Gagnep.- Vietnam
Antidesma baccatum Airy Shaw - New Guinea, Maluku
Antidesma bhargavae Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr. - Andaman & Nicobar
Antidesma brachybotrys Airy Shaw - Malaysia, Borneo
Antidesma brevipes Petra Hoffm. - Sulawesi
Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. - Queensland, Christmas I, New Guinea, SE Asia, Indian Sub., China
Antidesma catanduanense Merr. - Catanduanes
Antidesma celebicum Miq. - Sulawesi, Timor, Maluku
Antidesma chalaranthum Airy Shaw - Papua New Guinea
Antidesma chonmon Gagnep. - Yunnan, Vietnam
Antidesma cochinchinense Gagnep. - Cambodia, S Vietnam
Antidesma comptum Tul. - Tamil Nadu
Antidesma concinnum Airy Shaw - Papua New Guinea
Antidesma contractum J.J.Sm. - New Guinea
Antidesma coriaceum Tul. - Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Nicobar Is
Antidesma costulatum Pax & K.Hoffm. - Sichuan, Yunnan
Antidesma cruciforme Gage - Peninsular Malaysia
Antidesma curranii Merr. - Philippines
Antidesma cuspidatum Müll.Arg. - Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
Antidesma dallachyanum Baill. - Queensland
Antidesma digitaliforme Tul. - Philippines
Antidesma eberhardtii Gagnep. - Laos, Vietnam
Antidesma edule Merr. - Philippines
Antidesma elassophyllum A.C.Sm. - Viti Levu, Vanua Levu
Antidesma elbertii Petra Hoffm. - Maluku, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Is
Antidesma erostre F.Muell. - New Guinea, Queensland
Antidesma excavatum Miq. - Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku, Philippines, Papuasia, Micronesia
Antidesma ferrugineum Airy Shaw - Papua New Guinea
Antidesma forbesii Pax & K.Hoffm. - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Sumatra
Antidesma fordii Hemsl. - Laos, Vietnam, S China
Antidesma fruticosum (Lour.) Müll.Arg. - Vietnam
Antidesma fruticulosum Kurz - Myanmar
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. - S China, S + SE Asia, Papuasia, N Australia
Antidesma gillespieanum A.C.Sm. - Fiji
Antidesma hainanense Merr. - Laos, Vietnam, S China
Antidesma helferi Hook.f. - S Myanmar, S Thailand, W Malaysia, N Sumatra
Antidesma heterophyllum Blume - Java, Lesser Sunda Is, Sulawesi, Maluku
Antidesma insulare Gillespie - Viti Levu
Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zucc. - China, Japan, SE Asia, Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia
Antidesma jayasuriyae Chakrab. & M.Gangop. - Sri Lanka
Antidesma jucundum Airy Shaw - Papua New Guinea
Antidesma × kapuae Rock - South Kona
Antidesma keralense Chakrab. & M.Gangop. - Kerala
Antidesma khasianum Hook.f. - Meghalaya
Antidesma kunstleri Gage - Perak
Antidesma laciniatum Müll.Arg. - W + C + E Africa
Antidesma laurifolium Airy Shaw - Thailand, Cambodia, Johor
Antidesma leucocladon Hook.f. - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Sumatra
Antidesma leucopodum Miq. - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines
Antidesma macgregorii C.B.Rob. - Philippines
Antidesma maclurei Merr. - Hainan, Vietnam
Antidesma madagascariense Lam. - Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, Réunion
Antidesma membranaceum Müll.Arg. - tropical + southern Africa
Antidesma messianianum Guillaumin - New Caledonia
Antidesma microcarpum Elmer - Philippines
Antidesma minus Blume - Sumatra, W. Java
Antidesma montanum Blume - China, S + SE Asia, New Guinea, Queensland
Antidesma montis-silam Airy Shaw - Sabah
Antidesma myriocarpum Airy Shaw - New Guinea
Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
Antidesma nienkui Merr. & Chun - Guangdong, Hainan, N Thailand
Antidesma nigricans Tul. Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Myanmar
Antidesma oblongum (Hutch.) Keay - Liberia, Ivory Coast
Antidesma orthogyne (Hook.f.) Airy Shaw - S Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
Antidesma pachybotryum Pax & K.Hoffm. - Cameroon
Antidesma pachystachys Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia
Antidesma pacificum Müll.Arg. - Vanua Levu, Moala
Antidesma pahangense Airy Shaw - Peninsular Malaysia
Antidesma parvifolium F.Muell. - Queensland, Northern Territory
Antidesma pendulum Hook.f. - S Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
Antidesma petiolatum Airy Shaw - New Guinea
Antidesma phanrangense Gagnep. - Vietnam
Antidesma platyphyllum H.Mann - Hawaii
Antidesma pleuricum Tul. - Taiwan, Philippines
Antidesma poilanei Gagnep. - S Vietnam
Antidesma polystylum Airy Shaw - Borneo
Antidesma pulvinatum Hillebr. - Hawaii
Antidesma puncticulatum Miq. - Sri Lanka, Andaman Is, SE Asia, Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra
Antidesma pyrifolium Müll.Arg. - Sri Lanka
Antidesma rhynchophyllum K.Schum. - New Guinea
Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw - Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, New Guinea
Antidesma roxburghii Wall. ex Tul.} - Arunachal Pradesh to Myanmar
Antidesma rufescens Tul. - tropical Africa
Antidesma sinuatum Benth. - Queensland
Antidesma sootepense Craib - Thailand, Yunnan, Laos, Cambodia
Antidesma spatulifolium Airy Shaw - New Guinea, Tanimbar
Antidesma stipulare Blume - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
Antidesma subbicolor Gagnep. - Vietnam
Antidesma subcordatum Merr. - Philippines, Lesser Sunda Is
Antidesma tetrandrum Blume - Andaman & Nicobar, Bali, Java, Sumatra
Antidesma tomentosum Blume - Nicobar Is, S Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia
Antidesma tonkinense Gagnep. - N Vietnam
Antidesma trichophyllum A.C.Sm. - Viti Levu
Antidesma vaccinioides Airy Shaw - Papua New Guinea
Antidesma velutinosum Blume - E Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, W Indonesia
Antidesma velutinum Tul. - Bangladesh, Andaman Is, SE Asia
Antidesma venenosum J.J.Sm. - Borneo
Antidesma venosum E.Mey. ex Tul. - Africa, China, SE Asia
Antidesma vogelianum Müll.Arg. - tropical Africa

The following taxa have been revised:

Antidesma obliquinervium Merr., now synonym for Antidesma montanum var. montanum[10]
Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr., now synonym for Antidesma montanum var. montanum[11]
Antidesma subolivaceum Elmer, now synonym for Antidesma tomentosum var. tomentosum[12]

References

Tropicos, Antidesma L.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 1027 in Latin
Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Flora of China Vol. 11 Page 209 五月茶属 wu yue cha shu Antidesma Burman ex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1027. 1753.
Hoffmann, P. 1999. The genus Antidesma (Euphorbiaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Kew Bull. 54(4): 877–885
Henkin, R.I. and W.T. Gillis. (1977). Divergent taste responsiveness to fruit of the tree Antidesma bunius Nature:265:536 - 537.
[1][permanent dead link]
"Antidesma L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
"Antidesma obliquinervium Merr". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
"Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
"Antidesma subolivaceum Elmer". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 3 May 2021.

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