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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales
Familiae: ApiaceaeAraliaceaeGriseliniaceaeMyodocarpaceaePennantiaceaePittosporaceaeTorricelliaceae

Name

Apiales Nakai, Hisi-Shokubutsu: 58. 1930.
Synonyms

Ammiales
Araliales
Aralidiales
Griseliniales
Pennantiales
Pittosporales
Torricelliales

References

Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88(12): 2259–2274. JSTOR DOI: 10.2307/3558388 Reference page.
Doweld, A.B. 2001. Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta) [Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Опыт системы сосудистых растений]. LXXX + 110 pp. Moscow: Geos. ISBN 5-89118-283-1. DJVU Reference page.
Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N., Wurdack, K.J., Tank, D.C., Brockington, S.F., Refulio, N., Walker, J.B., Moore, M.J., Carlsward, B.S., Bell, C.D., Latvis, M., Crawley, S., Black, C., Diouf, D., Xi, Z., Rushworth, C.A., Gitzendanner, M.A., Sytsma, K.J., Qiu, Y.-L., Hilu, K.W., Davis, C.C., Sanderson, M.J., Beaman, R.S., Olmstead, R.G., Judd, W.S., Donoghue, M.J. & Soltis, P.S. 2011. Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. American Journal of Botany 98(4): 704–730. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000404 Open access Reference page.
Nicolas, A.N., & Plunkett, G.M. 2009. The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the re-alignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53(1): 134–151. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.010 Paywall Reference page.
Chandler, G.T. & Plunkett, G.M. 2004. Evolution in Apiales: nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 144(1): 123–147. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2003.00247.x Reference page.
Plunkett, G.M., Chandler, G.T., Lowry, P.P., Pinney, S.M., Sprenkle, T.S., Van Wyk, B.E. & Tilney, P.M. 2004. Recent advances in understanding Apiales with a revised classification. South African Journal of Botany 70(3): 371–381. DOI: 10.1016/S0254-6299(15)30220-9 Paywall ResearchGate. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: خيميات
azərbaycanca: Çətirçiçəklilər
башҡортса: Сатыр сәскәлеләр
беларуская: Парасонакветныя
català: Apial
Cebuano: Tanom nga kinsay
čeština: miříkotvaré
dansk: Skærmplante-ordenen
Deutsch: Doldenblütlerartige
English: Apiales
Esperanto: Apialoj
eesti: Sarikalaadsed
فارسی: کرفس‌سانان
français: Apiales
galego: Apiales
עברית: סוככאים
hrvatski: Celerolike
magyar: Ernyősvirágzatúak
Bahasa, Indonesia: Apiales
íslenska: Sveipjurtabálkur
italiano: Apiales
日本語: セリ目
қазақша: Шатыргүлділер
한국어: 미나리목
kurdî: Koma kulîlksîwanan
lietuvių: Salieriečiai
latviešu: Čemurziežu rinda
македонски: Штитовидни
Bahasa Melayu: Apiales
Nederlands: Schermbloemachtigen
norsk: Apiales
occitan: Apiales
polski: Selerowce
português: Apiales
română: Apiales
русский: Зонтикоцветные
Scots: Apiales
slovenčina: zelerotvaré
Sunda: Apiales
svenska: Araliaordningen
ไทย: อันดับผักชี
українська: Аралієцвіті
اردو: کرفسطب
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Hoa tán
中文: 伞形目

The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families are those recognized in the APG III system.[1] This is typical of the newer classifications, though there is some slight variation and in particular, the Torriceliaceae may be divided.[2]

Under this definition, well-known members include carrots, celery, parsley, and Hedera helix (English ivy).

The order Apiales is placed within the asterid group of eudicots as circumscribed by the APG III system.[1] Within the asterids, Apiales belongs to an unranked group called the campanulids,[3] and within the campanulids, it belongs to a clade known in phylogenetic nomenclature as Apiidae.[4] In 2010, a subclade of Apiidae named Dipsapiidae was defined to consist of the three orders: Apiales, Paracryphiales, and Dipsacales.[5]
Taxonomy

Under the Cronquist system, only the Apiaceae and Araliaceae were included here, and the restricted order was placed among the rosids rather than the asterids. The Pittosporaceae were placed within the Rosales, and many of the other forms within the family Cornaceae. Pennantia was in the family Icacinaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the families Apiaceae and Araliaceae were placed in the order Ariales, in the superorder Araliiflorae (also called Aralianae).

The present understanding of the Apiales is fairly recent and is based upon comparison of DNA sequences by phylogenetic methods.[6] The circumscriptions of some of the families have changed. In 2009, one of the subfamilies of Araliaceae was shown to be polyphyletic.[7]
Gynoecia

The largest and obviously closely related families of Apiales are Araliaceae, Myodocarpaceae and Apiaceae, which resemble each other in the structure of their gynoecia. In this respect however, the Pittosporaceae is notably distinct from them.[8]

Typical syncarpous gynoecia exhibit four vertical zones, determined by the extent of fusion of the carpels. In most plants the synascidiate (i.e. "united bottle-shaped") and symplicate zones are fertile and bear the ovules.[9] Each of the first three families possess mainly bi- or multilocular ovaries in a gynoecium with a long synascidiate, but very short symplicate zone, where the ovules are inserted at their transition, the so-called cross-zone (or "Querzone").[8]

In gynoecia of the Pittosporaceae, the symplicate is much longer than the synascidiate zone, and the ovules are arranged along the first. Members of the latter family consequently have unilocular ovaries with a single cavity between adjacent carpels.[8]
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Plunkett, Gregory M.; Chandler, Gregory T.; Lowry, Porter P.; Pinney, Steven M.; Sprenkle, Taylor S. (2004). "Recent advances in understanding Apiales and a revised classification". South African Journal of Botany. 70 (3): 371–381. doi:10.1016/s0254-6299(15)30220-9.
Winkworth, Richard C.; Lundberg, Johannes; Donoghue, Michael J. (2008). "Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales". Taxon. 57 (1): 53–65.
Philip D. Cantino; James A. Doyle; Sean W. Graham; Walter S. Judd; Richard G. Olmstead; Douglas E. Soltis; Pamela S. Soltis; Michael J. Donoghue (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846, doi:10.2307/25065865, JSTOR 25065865
Tank, D. C.; Donoghue, M. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and Phylogenetic Nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an Expanded Sample of Genes and Taxa". Systematic Botany. 35 (2): 425. doi:10.1600/036364410791638306. S2CID 27856073.
Chandler, G. T.; Plunkett, G. M. (2004). "Evolution in Apiales: nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 144 (2): 123. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2003.00247.x.
Nicolas, A. N.; Plunkett, G. M. (2009). "The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the re-alignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53 (1): 134–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.010. PMID 19549570.
Oskolski, Alexei A.; Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Van Wyk, Ben-Erik (2010). "False paracarpy in Seemannaralia (Araliaceae): from bilocular ovary to unilocular fruit" (PDF). Annals of Botany. 106 (1): 29–36. doi:10.1093/aob/mcq084. PMC 2889795. PMID 20462851. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
Pankhurst, R. J. (1992). Morphology of flowers and inflorescences (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 153–155. ISBN 9780521438322.

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