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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Astereae
Subtribus: Asterinae
Genus: Aster
Species

A. ageratoides – A. aitchisonii – A. alatipes – A. albescens – A. alpinoamellus – A. alpinus – A. altaicus – A. amellus – A. arenarius – A. argyropholis – A. asagrayi – A. asteroides – A. auriculatus – A. baccharoides – A. bachtiaricus – A. barbellatus – A. batangensis – A. bellidiastrum – A. bietii – A. bipinnatisectus – A. boweri – A. brachytrichus – A. brevis – A. bulleyanus – A. chingshuiensis – A. crenatifolius – A. dimorphophyllus – A. diplostephioides – A. dolichophyllus – A. dolichopodus – A. eligulatus – A. falcifolius – A. falconeri – A. fanjingshanicus – A. farreri – A. filipes – A. flaccidus – A. formosanus – A. fulgidulus – A. fuscescens – A. giraldii – A. glehnii – A. gouldii – A. gracilicaulis – A. gymnocephalus – A. handelii – A. hayatae – A. helenae – A. heliopsis – A. hersileoides – A. heterolepis – A. himalaicus – A. hispidus – A. hololachnus – A. homochlamydeus – A. hunanensis – A. hypoleucus – A. incisus – A. indamellus – A. indicus – A. ionoglossus – A. itsunboshi – A. jeffreyanus – A. juchaihu – A. kantoensis – A. komonoensis – A. koraiensis – A. laka – A. langaoensis – A. latibracteatus – A. lautureanus – A. lavandulifolius – A. likiangensis – A. limosus – A. lingii – A. lingulatus – A. lipskyi – A. lixianensis – A. longipetiolatus – A. lushiensis – A. luzonensis – A. maackii – A. mangshanensis – A. marchandii – A. medius – A. megalanthus – A. menelii – A. meyendorffii – A. miquelianus – A. miyagii – A. molliusculus – A. mongolicus – A. morrisonensis – A. motuoensis – A. moupinensis – A. nakaoi – A. neobiennis – A. neoelegans – A. neolanuginosus – A. nigromontanus – A. nitidus – A. oldhamii – A. oreophilus – A. ovalifolius – A. ovatus – A. panduratus – A. peduncularis – A. pekinensis – A. philippinensis – A. piccolii – A. pinnatifidus – A. poliothamnus – A. polios – A. prainii – A. procerus – A. pseudoglehnii – A. pseudosimplex – A. pujosii – A. pycnophyllus – A. pyrenaeus – A. quitensis – A. retusus – A. rockianus – A. rugulosus – A. salwinensis – A. sampsonii – A. sanczirii – A. satsumensis – A. savatieri – A. scaber – A. sekimotoi – A. semiamplexicaulis – A. semiprostratus – A. senecioides – A. setchuenensis – A. shimadai – A. sikkimensis – A. sikuensis – A. sinianus – A. sinoangustifolius – A. smithianus – A. sohayakiensis – A. souliei – A. spathulifolius – A. sphaerotus – A. stracheyi – A. sugimotoi – A. taiwanensis – A. takasagomontanus – A. taliangshanensis – A. taoyuenensis – A. tataricus – A. techinensis – A. tenuipes – A. thomsonii – A. tientschwanensis – A. tongolensis – A. tricephalus – A. trichoneurus – A. trinervius – A. tsarungensis – A. turbinatus – A. veitchianus – A. velutinosus – A. verticillatus – A. vestitus – A. viscidulus – A. vvedenskyi – A. wattii – A. willkommii – A. woroschilovii – A. yakushimensis – A. yomena – A. yoshinaganus – A. yuanqunensis – A. yunnanensis
Name

Aster L. Sp. Pl. 2: 872. (1753)

Type species: A. amellus L.

Synonymy

Homotypic
Amellus Adans., Fam. 2: 125. 1763, nom. illeg. non P.Browne (1756) nom. rej., nec Amellus L. (1759), nom. cons.
Kalimares Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 46. 1836 publ. 1837.
Heterotypic
Asteromoea Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 901. (1826)
Heteropappus Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. 189. (1832)
Diplactis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 45. (1836)
Miyamayomena Kitam. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 33: 409. (1982)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 872. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Aster in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Aug. 4. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Aster. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Aug. 4. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Aster. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 23 2018.
Manning, J.C. & Goldblatt, P. 2012. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region. Volume 1: The Core Cape Flora. Strelitzia 29: 1–825. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. ISBN 978-1-919976-74-7. PDF. Reference page.
Shaw, J. 2014. The splitting of Aster. The Plantsman 500(250): 120–125. Full text PDF Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2018. Aster. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 22.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Aster in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
العربية: نجمي
azərbaycanca: Çayırçiçəyi
башҡортса: Йондоҙ сәскә
беларуская: Астра
български: Астра
বাংলা: অ্যাস্টার
català: Àster
čeština: hvězdnice
dansk: Asters
Deutsch: Astern
English: The true Asters
Esperanto: Astero
فارسی: گل‌ستاره‌ایا
suomi: Asterit
Gaeilge: Astar
magyar: őszirózsa, Évelő őszirózsa
հայերեն: Աստղածաղիկ
Bahasa Indonesia: Bunga Aster
Ido: Astero
日本語: シオン属, アスター
ქართული: ასტრა
қазақша: Қашқаргүл
перем коми: Астра
한국어: 참취속
коми: Астра
Кыргызча: Астра
lietuvių: Astras
кырык мары: Астра
پنجابی: تارہ
русский: Астра
slovenčina: astra
svenska: Astersläktet
Türkçe: Yıldızpatı
удмурт: Астра
українська: Айстра
中文: 紫菀, 紫菀屬

Aster is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Its circumscription has been narrowed, and it now encompasses around 170 species, all but one of which are restricted to Eurasia; many species formerly in Aster are now in other genera of the tribe Astereae. Aster amellus is the type species of the genus and the family Asteraceae.[1]

The name Aster comes from the Ancient Greek word ἀστήρ (astḗr), meaning "star", referring to the shape of the flower head. Many species and a variety of hybrids and varieties are popular as garden plants because of their attractive and colourful flowers. 'Aster' species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Aster. Asters can grow in all hardiness zones.

Circumscription
Main article: List of Aster synonyms
Multi layer petals Aster flower

The genus Aster once contained nearly 600 species in Eurasia and North America, but after morphologic and molecular research on the genus during the 1990s, it was decided that the North American species are better treated in a series of other related genera. After this split there are roughly 180 species within the genus, all but one being confined to Eurasia.[3]

The New World species have now been reclassified in the genera Almutaster, Canadanthus, Doellingeria, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oligoneuron, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus and Symphyotrichum, though all are treated within the same tribe, Astereae. The "China aster" is in the related genus Callistephus. Regardless of the taxonomic change, most are still widely referred to as "asters", or "Michaelmas daisies", because of their typical blooming period.

Species

In the United Kingdom, there are no native members of the genus, The species formerly known as Aster tripolium (sea aster) is now Tripolium pannonicum. The species formerly known as Aster linosyris (goldilocks) is now Galatella linosyris. Many species and a variety of hybrids and varieties are popular as garden plants because of their beautiful, attractive and colourful flowers. Aster species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Aster. Asters can grow in all hardiness zones.

Some species are:

Aster ageratoides – rough-surface aster
Aster alpinus – alpine aster
Aster amellus – European Michaelmas daisy, Italian aster
Aster arenarius – beach-sand aster
Aster fastigiatus – highly-branch aster
Aster glehnii – Ulleungdo aster
Aster hayatae – Korean montane aster
Aster hispidus – bristle-hair aster
Aster iinumae – perennial false aster
Aster incisus – incised-leaf aster
Aster lautureanus – connected aster, mountain aster
Aster maackii – Maack's aster
Aster magnus – magnus aster
Aster neoelegans
Aster spathulifolius – seashore spatulate aster
Aster tataricus – Tatarian aster, Tatarinow's aster
Aster tonglingensis[4]
Aster tongolensis

Hybrids and cultivars

Those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Aster × frikartii (A. amellus × A. thomsonii) Frikart's aster[5]
Aster × frikartii 'Mönch' agm[6]
A. × frikartii 'Wunder von Stäfa' agm[7]
'Kylie' (A. novae-angliae 'Andenken an Alma Pötschke' × A. ericoides 'White Heather')[8]
'Ochtendgloren' agm[9] (A. pringlei hybrid)
'Photograph' agm[10]

In history

The Hungarian revolution of 31 October 1918, became known as the "Aster Revolution" due to protesters in Budapest wearing this flower.[11]
References

Elizabeth Pennissi (2001). "Linnaeus's last stand?". Science. 291 (5512): 2304–2307. doi:10.1126/science.291.5512.2304. PMID 11269295. S2CID 83724152.
"Aster L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
Luc Brouillet, Theodore M. Barkley & John L. Strother. "Asteraceae Martinov tribe Astereae Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. 88: 195. 1819". Flora of North America. p. 3. in Flora of North America.
"Convergent Origin of the narrowly lanceolate leaf in the Genus Aster—with Special Reference to An Unexpected Discovery of A New Aster Species from East China". Novataxa. 2019-01-27. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
Floridata: Aster × frikartii
"RHS Plant Selector - Aster × frikartii 'Mönch'". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
"RHS Plant Selector - A. × frikartii 'Wunder von Stäfa'". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
Klein, Carol (2004-10-22). "Blazin' squad". Telegraph. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
"RHS Plant Selector - Aster 'Ochtendgloren'". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
"RHS Plant Selector - Aster 'Photograph'". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
Hajdu, Tibor (1990). "Revolution, Counterrevolution, Consolidation". In Peter F. Sugar (ed.). A History of Hungary ([New printing]. ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 297. ISBN 0253355788.

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