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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Plantaginaceae
Tribus: Gratioleae
Genus: Bacopa
Species: B. albida – B. amplexicaulis – B. angulata – B. appressa – B. aquatica – B. arenaria – B. axillaris – B. bacopoides – B. beccabunga – B. bracteolata – B. braunii – B. callitrichoides – B. carolinianaa – B. cladostyla – B. cochlearia – B. connata – B. crenata – B. decumbens – B. depressa – B. diffusa – B. divaricata – B. dubia – B. egensisB. eisenii – B. elongata – B. floribunda – B. gracilis – B. gratioloides – B. hamiltoniana – B. humifusa – B. imbricata – B. innominata – B. lacertosa – B. lanigera – B. laxiflora – B. lecomtei – B. lisowskiana – B. longipes – B. madagascariensis – B. minuta – B. monnieri – B. monnierioides – B. monosticta – B. montevidensis – B. myriophylloides – B. nigrescens – B. occultans – B. oxycalyx – B. paraguariensis – B. parvula – B. pedersenii – B. pennellii – B. punctata – B. repens – B. reptans – B. rotundifolia – B. salzmannii – B. scabra – B. semiserrata – B. serpyllifolia – B. sessiliflora – B. stellarioides – B. stemodioides – B. stricta – B. tweediei – B. valeroi – B. versicolor – B. verticillata

Name

Bacopa Aubl. Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 128–130, pl. 49. (1775) nom. cons.
Type species: Bacopa aquatica Aubl. Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 129–130, pl. 49. (1775)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Sinobacopa D.Y. Hong Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25(5): 395, f. 1. (1987)
Heterotypic
Bramia Lam. Encycl. 1: 459. (1785)
Geochorda Cham. & Schltdl. Linnaea 3: 11–12. (1828)
Herpestis Gaertn. Suppl. Carp. 186, pl. 214. (1807)
Hydranthelium Kunth Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 7: 202. (1825)
Ildefonsia Gardner London J. Bot. 1: 184. (1842)
Mella Vand. Fl. Lusit. Bras. Spec. 43. (1788)
Moniera P. Browne Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica 269. (1756) nom. rej. against Bacopa Aubl. (1775) (nom. cons.)

References

Aublet, J.B.C.F. (1775) Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 128–130, pl. 49.
The Plant List 2013. Bacopa in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 May 31.
Tropicos.org 2014. Bacopa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 May 31.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Bacopa. Published online. Accessed: May 31 2014.

Vernacular names
čeština: Bakopa
English: Water Hyssop
suomi: Bakopat, rasvalehdet
magyar: Bakopa

Bacopa is a genus of 70–100 aquatic plants belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It is commonly known as waterhyssop (or water hyssop, though this is more misleading as Bacopa is not very closely related to hyssop but simply has a somewhat similar appearance).

Description
Bacopa monnieri in Hyderabad, India.

They are annual or perennial, with decumbent or erect stems. The leaves are opposite or whorled, and sessile. The leaf blade is regular, round to linear, and the venation is palmate or pinnate. Its stems are hairy or smooth. The flowers are produced solitary or in pairs from leaf axils, usually radially symmetrical, with five sepals and five petals, and they are usually white, blue, or purple. Dispersal and propagation is by seeds and stem fragments. Crushed leaves have a distinctive 'lemon' scent.
Bacopa myriophylloides
Habitat and range

Bacopa species are found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly the Americas. A few are regarded as weeds and excess stock should not be dumped in warmer regions. Most grow in moist amphibious conditions, though some like B. myriophylloides seem to be wholly aquatic.
Uses

Bacopa monnieri is used in Ayurvedic medicine. Preliminary clinical research found that the herb may improve cognition.[2][3][4]
Cultivation

Some of these species are commonly used in freshwater aquariums and ponds in warmer climates. Most are easy to grow and will tolerate a wide range of conditions. B. monnieri will tolerate brackish water up to 15 ppt, due to specialized adaptations that enable it to survive in saline environments. Algal infestation can be a problem in brighter lighting conditions.[5][6][7]
Selected species

Bacopa australis
Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B.L.Rob. – lemon bacopa, blue water hyssop, giant bacopa
Bacopa decumbens (Fernald) F.N.Williams[8]
Bacopa crenata
Bacopa eisenii (Kellogg) Pennell – Gila River waterhyssop [9]
Bacopa innominata (G.Maza) Alain – tropical waterhyssop

Bacopa madagascariensis
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell – water hyssop, moneywort, herb of grace
Bacopa myriophylloides
Bacopa repens (Sw.) Wettst.[8]
Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. – disc waterhyssop
Bacopa stricta (Schrad.) B.L.Robins. – yerba de culebra[9]

Formerly placed here

Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small (as B. procumbens (Mill.) Greenm.)[8]

See also

Chaenostoma cordatum syn. Sutera cordata, a plant also known by the obsolete name Bacopa.

References
"Genus: Bacopa Aubl". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas (2013). "Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri". Rejuvenation Research. 16 (4): 313–326. doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1431. ISSN 1557-8577. PMC 3746283. PMID 23772955.
Kongkeaw, C; Dilokthornsakul, P; Thanarangsarit, P; Limpeanchob, N; Norman Scholfield, C (2014). "Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 151 (1): 528–35. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.008. PMID 24252493.
Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew (5 February 2013). "Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 75 (3): 728–737. doi:10.1111/bcp.12002. ISSN 0306-5251. PMC 3575939. PMID 23043278.
Ali, G.; Srivastava, P.S.; Iqbal, M. (1999). "Proline Accumulation, Protein Pattern and Photosynthesis in Bacopa Monniera Regenerants Grown under Na Cl Stress". Biologia Plantarum. 42: 89–95. doi:10.1023/A:1002127711432. S2CID 30418903.
"Histological and Morphological Responses of Bacopa Monnieri (L.) Pennell in Glycophytic and Halophytic Conditions | International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research". 31 December 2018.
Native Plants Hawaii. "Bacopa monnieri". Retrieved 19 July 2012.
"GRIN Species Records of Bacopa". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
"Bacopa". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 January 2011.

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