Bacopa

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Bacopa
Species: B. caroliniana - B. egensis - B. eisenii - B. innominata - B. monnieri - B. procumbens - B. repens - B. rotundifolia - B. stricta

Name

Bacopa Aubl.

Vernacular names

Bacopa is a genus of 70 - 100 aquatic plants belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It is commonly known as Waterhyssop (or Water Hyssop, though this is more misleading as Bacopa is not very closely related to hyssop but simply has a somewhat similar habitus).

Description


They are annual or perennial, decumbent or erect stemmed plants. The leaves are opposite or whorled, sessile. Leaf blade regular, round to linear, venation palmate or pinnate. Stems hairy or smooth. The flowers are produced solitary or in pairs from leaf axil, usually radially symmetrical, sepals 5, petals 5, usually white, blue or purple in color. Dispersal and propagation is by seeds and stem fragments. Crushed leaves have a distinctive 'lemon' scent.

Habitat and range

Bacopa species are found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly the Americas. A few are regarded as weeds and excess stock should not be dumped in warmer regions. Most grow in moist amphibious conditions, though some like B. myriophylloides seem to be wholly aquatic.

Uses

B. monnieri syn. Herpestis monniera, is important in ayurvedic medicine and has been used, particularly in India, for several thousand years.

Cultivation

Some of these species are commonly used in freshwater aquariums and around and in ponds in warmer climes. Most are easy to grow and are slow-growing, but require medium to high amounts of light. Most are easy to grow and will tolerate a wide range of water conditions. B. caroliniana at least will tolerate brackish water. Plants are usually best planted in groups in the middle to background. Algal infestation can be a problem in brighter lighting conditions.

Selected species

* Bacopa australis
* Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B.L.Rob. – lemon bacopa, blue water hyssop, giant bacopa
* Bacopa decumbens (Fernald) F.N.Williams[2]
* Bacopa crenata
* Bacopa eisenii (Kellogg) Pennell – Gila River waterhyssop [3]
* Bacopa innominata (G.Maza) Alain – tropical waterhyssop
* Bacopa madagascariensis
* Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell – water hyssop, moneywort, herb of grace
* Bacopa myriophylloides
* Bacopa repens (Sw.) Wettst.[2]
* Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. – disc waterhyssop
* Bacopa stricta (Schrad.) B.L.Robins. – yerba de culebra[3]

Formerly placed here

* Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small (as B. procumbens (Mill.) Greenm.)[2]

References

1. ^ "Genus: Bacopa Aubl.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?1218. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
2. ^ a b c "GRIN Species Records of Bacopa". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?1218. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
3. ^ a b "Bacopa". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=33037. Retrieved 2011-01-18.

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