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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales
Familiae: Acanthaceae - BignoniaceaeByblidaceaeCalceolariaceaeCarlemanniaceaeGesneriaceaeLamiaceae - Lentibulariaceae – Linderniaceae – Martyniaceae – Mazaceae – OleaceaeOrobanchaceaePaulowniaceaePedaliaceaePhrymaceaePlantaginaceae - Plocospermataceae - Schlegeliaceae - Scrophulariaceae - Stilbaceae - Tetrachondraceae – Thomandersiaceae – Verbenaceae

Name

Lamiales Bromhead
Synonyms

Acanthales
Bignoniales
Byblidales
Callitrichales
Carlemanniales
Gesneriales Rich. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 252. 1820.
Gesneriineae Link, Handbuch 1: 505. 1829
Type genus: Gesneria L'Her.
Globulariales
Hippuridales
Jasminales
Lentibulariales
Ligustrales
Oleales
Pinguiculales
Plantaginales
Rhinanthales
Scrophulariales
Stilbales
Verbenales

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x Open access Reference page.
Schäferhoff, B., Andreas Fleischmann, A., Fischer, E., Albach, D.C., Borsch, T., Heubl, G. & Müller, K.F. 2010. Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 352. Available on line [1]. Accessed 2014 May 14.
Olmstead, R.G. (ed.) 2016. A Synoptical Classification of the Lamiales. Version 2.6.2 (in prog.). 20 pp. (PDF) Reference page. Accessed 14 Feb. 2014.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page. Accessed 2014 Jan. 29
Tropicos.org 2014. Lamiales. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Jan. 29.

Vernacular names
Alemannisch: Lippenblütlerartige
العربية: شفويات
azərbaycanca: Dalamazçiçəklilər
беларуская: Ясноткакветныя
বাংলা: লেমিয়ালেস
català: Lamial
čeština: hluchavkotvaré
dansk: Læbeblomst-ordenen
Deutsch: Lippenblütlerartige
Esperanto: Lamialoj
eesti: Iminõgeselaadsed
فارسی: نعناسانان
עברית: צינוראים
hrvatski: Medićolike
magyar: Ajakosvirágúak, árvacsalán-virágúak
íslenska: Varablómabálkur
日本語: シソ目
한국어: 꿀풀목
kurdî: Koma gezika derewîn
lietuvių: Notreliečiai
latviešu: Panātru rinda
македонски: Мртвокопривовидни
മലയാളം: ലാമിയേൽസ്
Nederlands: Lipbloemigen
polski: Jasnotowce
پښتو: نعنا ډوله بوټي
русский: Губоцветные
slovenčina: hluchavkotvaré
svenska: Plisterordningen
తెలుగు: లామియేలిస్
ไทย: อันดับกะเพรา
українська: Губоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Hoa môi
中文: 唇形目

The Lamiales are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It includes about 23,810[2] species, 1,059 genera, and is divided into about 24 families. Being one of the largest orders of flowering plants, Lamiales have representatives found all over the world. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary. Lamiales and Orobanchaceae are both the largest populated parasitic angiosperms of flowering plants.[4]

Description

Although exceptions often occur, species in this order typically have the following characteristics:

superior ovary composed of two fused carpels
five petals fused into a tube
bilaterally symmetrical, often bilabiate corollas
four (or fewer) fertile stamens
opposite leaves

Taxonomy

The Lamiales previously had a restricted circumscription (e.g., by Arthur Cronquist) that included the major families Lamiaceae (Labiatae), Verbenaceae, and Boraginaceae, plus a few smaller families. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Lamiales were in the superorder Lamiiflorae (also called Lamianae). Recent phylogenetic work has shown the Lamiales are polyphyletic with respect to order Scrophulariales and the two groups are now usually combined in a single order that also includes the former orders Hippuridales and Plantaginales. Lamiales has become the preferred name for this much larger combined group. The placement of the Boraginaceae is unclear, but phylogenetic work shows this family does not belong in Lamiales.

Also, the circumscription of family Scrophulariaceae, formerly a paraphyletic group defined primarily by plesiomorphic characters and from within which numerous other families of the Lamiales were derived, has been radically altered to create a number of smaller, better-defined, and putatively monophyletic families.
Dating

Much research has been conducted in recent years regarding the dating the Lamiales lineage, although there still remains some ambiguity. A 2004 study, on the molecular phylogenetic dating of asterid flowering plants, estimated 106 million years (MY) for the stem lineage of Lamiales.[5] A 2009 study on angiosperm diversification through time, concluded an inferred age of lower Eocene, ca. 50 MY, for Lamiales.[6]
References

M. E. J. Chandler. 1964. The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England. IV. A summary and survey of findings in the light of recent botanical observations.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Schäferhoff, Bastian; Fleischmann, Andreas; Fischer, Eberhard; Albach, Dirk C; Borsch, Thomas; Heubl, Günther; Müller, Kai F (2010). "Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10 (1): 352. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-352. ISSN 1471-2148.
Bremer, K.; Friis, E. M.; Bremer, B. (2004). "Molecular phylogenetic dating of asterid flowering plants shows early Cretaceous diversification". Systematic Biology. 53 (3): 496–505. doi:10.1080/10635150490445913. ISSN 1063-5157. PMID 15503676.
Magallón, S.; Castillo, A. (2009). "Angiosperm diversification through time". American Journal of Botany. 96 (1): 349–365. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800060. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21628193.

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