Scrophulariaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Scrophulariaceae
Tribus: Aptosimeae - Buddlejeae - Freylinieae - Hemimerideae - Leucophylleae - Manuleae - Myoporeae - Scrophularieae - Teedieae -

List of Genera

Achetaria - Adenosma - Agalinis - Agathelpis - Alectra - Alonsoa - Amphianthus - Anastrabe - Ancistrostylis - Androya - Angelonia - Anisantherina - Antherothamnus - Anticharis - Aphyllon - Aptosimum - Aragoa - Artanema - Bacopa - Bampsia - Bartsia - Basistemon - Baumia - Bellardia - Benjaminia - Besseya - Bontia - Bowkeria - Brandisia - Braunblanquetia - Brookea - Bryodes - Buchnera - Buddleja - Bungea - Buttonia - Bythophyton - Calceolaria - Campbellia - Camptoloma - Campylanthus - Capraria - Castilleja - Centranthera - Charadrophila - Chelone - Chenopodiopsis - Chionohebe - Chionophila - Clevelandia - Cochlidiosperma - Collinsia - Colpias - Conobea - Cordylanthus - Craterostigma - Cromidon - Cycniopsis - Cycnium - Cymbaria - Cyrtandromoea - Dasistoma - Deinostema - Dermatobotrys - Detzneria - Diascia - Diclis - Dintera - Dischisma - Dizygostemon - Dodartia - Dopatrium - Elacholoma - Elatinoides - Ellisiophyllum - Emorya - Encopella - Eremogeton - Eremophila - Erinus - Escobedia - Esterhazya - Euphrasia - Faxonanthus - Freylinia - Gentrya - Geochorda - Gerardiina - Ghikaea - Gibsoniothamnus - Glekia - Globulariopsis - Glossostigma - Glumicalyx - Gomphostigma - Gosela - Graderia - Gratiola - Halleria - Harveya - Hebe - Hebenstretia - Hedbergia - Hemichaena - Hemimeris - Hemiphragma - Herpestis - Heteranthia - Hiernia - Hydranthelium - Hydrotriche - Hyobanche - Isoplexis - Ixianthes - Jamesbrittenia - Jerdonia - Kashmiria - Keckiella - Lagotis - Lamourouxia - Lancea - Lathraea - Leptorhabdos - Lesquereuxia - Leucocarpus - Leucophyllum - Leucosalpa - Limnophila - Limosella - Lindenbergia - Lindernia - Lyperia - Macranthera - Maeviella - Magdalenaea - Manulea - Manuleopsis - Mazus - Mecardonia - Melampyrum - Melanospermum - Melasma - Melosperma - Micranthemum - Micrargeria - Micrargeriella - Microcarpaea - Microdon - Mimetanthe - Mimulicalyx - Monocardia - Monochasma - Monopera - Monttea - Myoporum - Namation - Nathaliella - Nemesia - Neopicrorhiza - Nicodemia - Nothochelone - Nothochilus - Nuxia - Odicardis - Odontites - Oftia - Oftia - Omania - Omphalotrix - Ophiocephalus - Oreosolen - Orthocarpus - Otacanthus - Ourisia - Paederota - Parahebe - Parastriga - Parentucellia - Pedicularis - Peliostomum - Peltanthera - Penstemon - Peplidium - Petitmenginia - Pholidia - Phtheirospermum - Phygelius - Phyllopodium - Physocalyx - Picria - Picrorhiza - Pierranthus - Poarium - Polycarena - Psammetes - Pseudobartsia - Pseudolysimachion - Pseudorobanche - Pseudosopubia - Pseudostriga - Pterygiella - Radamaea - Ranopisoa - Ranopisoa - Rehmannia - Rhamphicarpa - Rhaphispermum - Rhinanthus - Rhynchocorys - Russelia - Sairocarpus - Schistophragma - Schizosepala - Schlegelia - Schwalbea - Scoparia - Scrofella - Scrophularia - Selago - Seymeria - Shiuyinghua - Sibthorpia - Silviella - Sinobacopa - Siphonostegia - Sopubia - Spielmannia - Spirostegia - Stemodia - Stemodiopsis - Stemotria - Striga - Strobilopsis - Sutera - Synthyris - Teedia - Tetranema - Tetraselago - Tetraspidium - Tetraulacium - Thunbergianthus - Tienmuia - Tonella - Torenia - Tozzia - Triaenophora - Trieenea - Triphysaria - Trungboa - Tuerckheimocharis - Uroskinnera - Vellosiella - Verbascum - Veronica - Veronicastrum - Walafrida - Wightia - Wulfenia - Wulfeniopsis - Xizangia - Xylocalyx - Zaluzianskya

Name

Scrophulariaceae Juss.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Magyar: Tátogatófélék
日本語: ゴマノハグサ科
Nederlands: Leeuwebekachtigen
Русский: Норичниковые
Türkçe: Yüksük otugiller


References

Lohmueller, F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants[1][2][3]

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Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, is a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia L..

In the past it was treated as including about 275 genera and over 5,000 species, but its circumscription has been radically altered since numerous molecular phylogenies have shown the traditional broad circumscription to be grossly polyphyletic. Many genera have recently been transferred to other families within the Lamiales, notably Plantaginaceae and Orobanchaceae but also several new families [1][2]. Several families of the Lamiales have had their circumscriptions enlarged to accommodate genera transferred from Scrophulariacae sensu lato.

The family includes some medicinal plants, among them:

* Leptandra, black root, Culver's root
* Scrophularia, figworts
* Verbascum, mulleins

Genera

This list is incomplete

Tribe Aptosimeae

* Anticharis Endl.
* Aptosimum Burch. ex Benth.
* Peliostomum E. Mey. ex Benth.[3]


Tribe Buddlejeae

* Buddleja L. - Butterfly-bush
* Emorya Torr.
* Gomphostigma Turcz.[4]


Tribe Hemimerideae

* Alonsoa Ruiz & Pav.
* Colpias E.Mey. ex Benth.
* Diascia Link & Otto
* Diclis Benth.
* Hemimeris L.f.
* Nemesia Vent.[5]


Tribe Leucophylleae

* Eremogeton Standl. & L.O.Williams
Leucophyllum frutescens
* Leucophyllum Humb. & Bonpl.[6]


Tribe Limoselleae

* Barthlottia Eb.Fisch.
* Camptoloma Benth.
* Chaenostoma Benth. (sometimes included in Sutera but separated by Kornhall and Bremer[7])
* Chenopodiopsis Hilliard
* Cromidon Compton
* Dischisma Choisy
* Glekia Hilliard
* Globulariopsis Compton
* Glumicalyx Hiern
* Gosela Choisy
* Hebenstretia L
* Jamesbrittenia Kuntze[7]
* Limosella L. -> Plantaginaceae -> Scrophulariaceae (according to Oxelman et al. 2005)[8]
* Lyperia Benth.
* Manuleopsis Thell. ex Schinz
* Melanospermum Hilliard
* Microdon Choisy
* Phyllopodium Benth.
* Polycarena Benth.
* Reyemia Hilliard
* Selago L.
* Strobilopsis Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
* Sutera Roth syn. Manulea Thun. - Dwarf Snapdragon, "Bacopa"
* Tetraselago Junell
* Trieenea Hilliard
* Zaluzianskya F.W.Schmidt[9]


Tribe Myoporeae

* Bontia L.
* Calamphoreus Chinnock
* Diocirea Chinnock
* Eremophila R.Br.
* Glycocystis Chinnock
* Myoporum Sol. ex G.Forst.
* Pentacoelium Siebold & Zucc.[10]


Tribe Scrophularieae

* Antherothamnus N.E.Br.
* Nathaliella B.Fedtsch.
* Oreosolen Hook.f.
* Scrophularia L. - Figwort
* Verbascum L. - Mullein[11]


Tribe Teedieae

* Dermatobotrys Bolus
* Freylinia Colla
* Oftia Adans.
* Ranopisoa J.F.Leroy
* Teedia Rudolphi


Not placed in a tribe

* Brachystigma Pennell - Desert foxglove
* Dasistoma Raf.
* Hemianthus Nutt.
* Leucosalpa Scott-Elliot
* Phygelius E.Mey. ex Benth. - Cape fuchsia[12]


Excluded genera

The following genera, traditionally included in the Scrophulariaceae, have been transferred to other families as indicated:

* Agalinis -> Orobanchaceae
* Amphianthus -> Plantaginaceae
* Angelonia -> Plantaginaceae
* Antirrhinum -> Plantaginaceae
* Bacopa -> Plantaginaceae
* Bartsia -> Orobanchaceae
* Bellardia -> Orobanchaceae
* Besseya -> Plantaginaceae[13]
* Calceolaria -> Calceolariaceae
* Castilleja -> Orobanchaceae
* Chaenorrhinum -> Plantaginaceae
* Chelone -> Plantaginaceae
* Chionophila -> Plantaginaceae
* Collinsia -> Plantaginaceae
* Cordylanthus -> Orobanchaceae
* Craterostigma Hochst. -> alongside Lindernia[14] or as part of Lindernia[15]
* Cymbalaria -> Plantaginaceae
* Digitalis -> Plantaginaceae
* Dopatrium -> Plantaginaceae
* Epixiphium -> Plantaginaceae
* Euphrasia -> Orobanchaceae
* Galvezia -> Plantaginaceae
* Gambelia -> Plantaginaceae
* Glossostigma -> Phrymaceae
* Gratiola -> Plantaginaceae
* Hebe -> Plantaginaceae
* Holmgrenanthe -> Plantaginaceae
* Howelliella -> Plantaginaceae
* Keckiella -> Plantaginaceae
* Kickxia -> Plantaginaceae
* Lagotis -> Plantaginaceae
* Limnophila -> Plantaginaceae
* Linaria -> Plantaginaceae
* Lindernia -> Plantaginaceae, also placed within its own family Linderniaceae according to Haston et al. 2007 (also known as LAPG II).[16]
* Lophospermum -> Plantaginaceae
* Mabrya -> Plantaginaceae
* Maurandella -> Plantaginaceae
* Maurandya -> Plantaginaceae
* Mazus -> Phrymaceae
* Mecardonia -> Plantaginaceae
* Melampyrum -> Orobanchaceae
* Micranthemum -> Plantaginaceae
* Mimulus -> Phrymaceae
* Misopates -> Plantaginaceae
* Mohavea -> Plantaginaceae
* Nemesia -> Plantaginaceae
* Neogaerrhinum -> Plantaginaceae
* Nothochelone -> Plantaginaceae
* Nuttallanthus -> Plantaginaceae
* Odontites -> Orobanchaceae
* Orobanche -> Orobanchaceae
* Orthocarpus -> Orobanchaceae
* Parentucellia -> Orobanchaceae
* Paulownia -> Paulowniaceae
* Pedicularis -> Orobanchaceae
* Penstemon -> Plantaginaceae
* Pseudorontium -> Plantaginaceae
* Rhinanthus -> Orobanchaceae
* Russelia -> Plantaginaceae
* Sairocarpus -> Plantaginaceae
* Schistophragma -> Plantaginaceae
* Scoparia (plant) -> Plantaginaceae
* Stemodia -> Plantaginaceae
* Striga -> Orobanchaceae[1][17]
* Synthyris -> Plantaginaceae
* Tonella -> Plantaginaceae
* Torenia L. -> Linderniaceae
* Triphysaria -> Orobanchaceae
* Veronica -> Plantaginaceae
* Veronicastrum -> Plantaginaceae


References

1. ^ a b Olmstead, R. G., dePamphilis, C. W., Wolfe, A. D., Young, N. D., Elisons, W. J. & Reeves P. A. (2001). "Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361. doi:10.2307/2657024. PMID 11222255. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/88/2/348.
2. ^ Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae?". Fremontia 30: 13–22. - on line here
3. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Aptosimeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1611. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
4. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Buddlejeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2282. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
5. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Hemimerideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1610. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
6. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Leucophylleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1609. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
7. ^ a b Kornhall, Per and Bremer, Birgitta (2004). "New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 146 (4): 453–467. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00341.x.
8. ^ Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R.G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". Taxon 54 (2): 411–425. doi:10.2307/25065369. http://jstor.org/stable/25065369.
9. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Limoselleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2280. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
10. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Myoporeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2281. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
11. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Scrophularieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1612. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
12. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1023. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
13. ^ Besseya at GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
14. ^ Albach, D. C.; Meudt, H. M.; Oxelman, B. (2005). "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92: 297. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.297. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/92/2/297.
15. ^ "Lindernia All.". A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Missouri Botanical Garden and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=12&taxon_id=118628.
16. ^ Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon 56 (1): 7–12. doi:10.2307/25065731.
17. ^ Nelson D. Young, Kim E. Steiner, Claude W. dePamphilis (Autumn, 1999). "The Evolution of Parasitism in Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae: Plastid Gene Sequences Refute an Evolutionary Transition Series". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86 (4): 876. doi:10.2307/2666173. http://jstor.org/stable/2666173.

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