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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Betulaceae
Subfamiliae: Betuloideae - Coryloideae

Genera: AlnusBetulaCarpinusCorylusOstryaOstryopsis

Paleogenera: † †Asterocarpinus – †Coryloides – †Cranea – †Kardiasperma – †Palaeocarpinus
Name

Betulaceae S.F.Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 222, 243. (1822) nom. cons.

Type genus: Betula L., Sp. Pl. 2: 982. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Corylaceae Mirb., Elem. Physiol. Veg. Bot. 2: 906. 1815. (24-30 Jun 1815) nom. cons.
Type genus: Corylus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 998. (1753)
Carpinaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot. 265, 280. (1818)
Type genus: Carpinus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 998. (1753)

Note: If united with Corylaceae, Betulaceae must be used based upon precedent of type genera.
References

Gray, S.F. 1822.A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 222, 243.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Betulaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Betulaceae. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 25 2019.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Betulaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
Tropicos.org 2019. Betulaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 26.

Vernacular names
العربية: قضبانية
azərbaycanca: Tozağacıkimilər
беларуская: Бярозавыя
български: Брезови
bosanski: Breze
català: Betulàcies
čeština: Břízovité
dansk: Birke-familien
Deutsch: Birkengewächse
Ελληνικά: Σημυδοειδή
English: Birch family, Alder family
Esperanto: Betulacoj
español: Betuláceas
eesti: Kaselised
فارسی: توسکایان
suomi: Koivukasvit
français: Bétulacée
galego: Betuláceas
עברית: שדריים
hrvatski: Brezovke
hornjoserbsce: Brězowe rostliny
magyar: Nyírfafélék
հայերեն: Կեչազգիներ
íslenska: Bjarkarætt
italiano: Betulacee
日本語: カバノキ科
ქართული: არყისებრნი
қазақша: Қайыңдар тұқымдасы
перем коми: Кыдз котыр
한국어: 자작나무과
kurdî: Famîleya darberk û gurganan
Lëtzebuergesch: Bierkeplanzen
lietuvių: Beržiniai
latviešu: Bērzu dzimta
македонски: Брези
Nederlands: Berkenfamilie
norsk: Bjørkefamilien
polski: Brzozowate
Runa Simi: Awidul yura rikch'aq ayllu
русский: Берёзовые
davvisámegiella: Soahkešattut
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Brezovke
slovenščina: Brezovke
svenska: Björkväxter
ไทย: วงศ์กำลังเสือโคร่ง
Türkçe: Huşgiller
українська: Березові
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qayindoshlar
Tiếng Việt: Họ Cáng lò, Họ Bạch dương
West-Vlams: Berkachtign
中文(简体): 桦木科
中文(繁體): 樺木科

Betulaceae, the birch family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams, hazel-hornbeam, and hop-hornbeams numbering a total of 167 species.[2] They are mostly natives of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with a few species reaching the Southern Hemisphere in the Andes in South America. Their typical flowers are catkins and often appear before leaves.

In the past, the family was often divided into two families, Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula) and Corylaceae (the rest). Recent treatments, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, have described these two groups as subfamilies within an expanded Betulaceae: Betuloideae and Coryloideae.

Evolutionary history

The Betulaceae are believed to have originated at the end of the Cretaceous period (about 70 million years ago) in central China. This region at the time would have had a Mediterranean climate due to the proximity of the Tethys Sea, which covered parts of present-day Tibet and Xinjiang into the early Tertiary period. This point of origin is supported by the fact that all six genera and 52 species are native to this region, many of those being endemic. All six modern genera are believed to have diverged fully by the Oligocene, with all genera in the family (with the exception of Ostryopsis) having a fossil record stretching back at least 20 million years from the present.

According to molecular phylogeny, the closest relatives of the Betulaceae are the Casuarinaceae, or the she-oaks.[3]
Uses
Corylus avellana foliage and nuts

The common hazel (Corylus avellana) and the filbert (Corylus maxima) are important orchard plants, grown for their edible nuts.

The other genera include a number of popular ornamental trees, widely planted in parks and large gardens; several of the birches are particularly valued for their smooth, brightly coloured bark.

The wood is generally hard, tough and heavy, hornbeams particularly so; several species were of significant importance in the past where very hard wood capable of withstanding heavy wear was required, such as for cartwheels, water wheels, cog wheels, tool handles, chopping boards, and wooden pegs. In most of these uses, wood has now been replaced by metal or other man-made materials.
Subfamilies and genera
Extant species

Betuloideae
Alnus Mill. 1754 – alder
Betula L. 1753 – birch
Coryloideae
Carpinus L. 1753 – hornbeam
Corylus L. 1753 – hazel
Ostrya Scop. 1760 – hop-hornbeam
Ostryopsis Decne. 1873 – hazel-hornbeam

Fossils

†Asterocarpinus
†Coryloides
†Cranea
†Kardiasperma
†Palaeocarpinus

Phylogenetic systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[3][4][5]

 Myricaceae (outgroup)

Betulaceae
Coryloideae

 Corylus

 Ostryopsis

 Ostrya

 Carpinus

Betuloideae

 Alnus

 Betula



References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Soltis DE, Smith SA, Cellinese N, Wurdack KJ, Tank DC, Brockington SF, Refulio-Rodriguez NF, Walker JB, Moore MJ, Carlsward BS, Bell CD, Latvis M, Crawley S, Black C, Diouf D, Xi Z, Rushworth CA, Gitzendanner MA, Sytsma KJ, Qiu YL, Hilu KW, Davis CC, Sanderson MJ, Beaman RS, Olmstead RG, Judd WS, Donoghue MJ, Soltis PS (2011). "Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa". Am J Bot. 98 (4): 704–730. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000404. PMID 21613169.
Xiang X-G, Wang W, Li R-Q, Lin L, Liu Y, Zhou Z-K, Li Z-Y, Chen Z-D (2014). "Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal fagalean diversification promoted by the interplay of diaspores and environments in the Paleogene". Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 16 (3): 101–110. doi:10.1016/j.ppees.2014.03.001.
Chen Z-D, Manchester SR, Sun H-Y (1999). "Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and palaeobotany". Am J Bot. 86 (8): 1168–1181. doi:10.2307/2656981. JSTOR 2656981. PMID 10449397.

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