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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Boraginales
Familiae: Boraginaceae

Boraginales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Prir. Rostlin 244 (1820).
This circumscription follows APG IV and subsumes all previous families into Boraginaceae s.l. with them re-circumscribed as subfamilies or tribes. However, see Luebert et al., (2016) and Stevens et al., (2016) for a contrary view, but also note they use Namaceae, which has not been formally published and so can not be used here.
Primary references

Berchtold, F.W.v. & Presl, J.S. 1820. O Prirozenosti Rostlin 244.

Additional references

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Chacón, J., Luebert, F., Hilger, H.H., Ovchinnikova, S., Selvi, F., Cecchi, L., Guilliams, C.M., Hasenstab-Lehman, K., Sutorý, K., Simpson, M.G. & Weigend, M. 2016. The borage family (Boraginaceae s. str.): A revised infrafamilial classification based on new phylogenetic evidence, with emphasis on the placement of some enigmatic genera. Taxon 65(3): 523-546. DOI: 10.12705/653.6 ResearchGate PDF Reference page.
Luebert, F., Cecchi, L., Frohlich, M.W., Gottschling, M., Guilliams, C.M., Hasenstab-Lehman, K.E., Hilger, H.H., Miller, J.S., Mittelbach, M., Nazaire, M. & Nepi, M. 2016. Familial classification of the Boraginales. Taxon 65(3): 502–522. DOI: 10.12705/653.5 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Luebert, F., Couvreur, T.L., Gottschling, M., Hilger, H.H., Miller, J.S. & Weigend, M. 2017. Historical biogeography of Boraginales: West Gondwanan vicariance followed by long‐distance dispersal? Journal of Biogeography 44(1): 158–169. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12841 Reference page.
Nazaire, M. & Hufford, L. 2012. A broad phylogenetic analysis of Boraginaceae: Implications for the relationships of Mertensia. Systematic Botany 37(3): 758–783. DOI: 10.1600/036364412X648715 Reference page.
Refulio-Rodríguez, N. & Olmstead, R.G. 2014. Phylogeny of Lamiidae. American Journal of Botany 101(2): 287–299. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1300394Open access Reference page.
Weigend, M. & Hilger, H.H. 2010. Codonaceae — a newly required family name in Boraginales. Phytotaxa 10: 26–30. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.10.1.3 Paywall Reference page.
Weigend, M., Luebert, F., Gottschling, M., Couvreur, T.L.P., Hilger, H.H. & Miller, J.S. 2014. From capsules to nutlets - phylogenetic relationships in the Boraginales. Cladistics 30(5): 508–518. DOI: 10.1111/cla.12061Open access Reference page.


Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page. 2014. Boraginales. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Jan. 29.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Sümürgənçiçəklilər
norsk nynorsk: Rubladordenen
norsk: Rubladordenen
русский: Бурачникоцветные
中文: 紫草目

Boraginales is a valid taxonomic name at the rank of order for a group of flowering plants. It includes Boraginaceae and closely related asterid families. The Boraginales include about 125 genera, 2,700 species and its herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas (vines) have a worldwide distribution.


The classification of plants now known as Boraginales dates to the Genera plantarum (1789) when Antoine Laurent de Jussieu named a group of plants Boragineae, to include the genus Borago, now the type genus. However, since the first valid description was by Friedrich von Berchtold and Jan Svatopluk Presl (1820),[2] the botanical authority is given as Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, where the ex refers to the prior authority of Jussieu. Lindley (1853) changed the name to the modern Boraginaceae.[3]

Jussieu divided the Boragineae into five groups.[4][5] Since then Boraginaceae has been treated either as a large family with several subfamilies, or as a smaller family with several closely related families.[6] The family had been included in a number of higher order taxa, but in 1926 Hutchinson erected a new order, Boraginales, to include the Boraginaceae.

Although Boraginales was included in a number of taxonomic classifications including Dahlgren (1980), Takhtajan (1997) and Kubitzki (2016)[7] as an order, it was not recognized in either of two major systems, the Cronquist system[8] and the APG system. In the Cronquist system, Boraginaceae (including Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, and Heliotropiaceae) and Lennoaceae were placed in the order Lamiales, while the related Hydrophyllaceae was placed in Solanales.

The APG system took a broad view of Boraginaceae (Boraginaceae s.l.), including within it the traditionally recognized families Hydrophyllaceae and Lennoaceae based on recent molecular phylogenies that show that Boraginaceae, as traditionally defined, is paraphyletic over these two families. APG III included Boraginaceae in the Euasterid I (lamiid) clade but this family was otherwise unplaced; its precise relationship to other families in the Euasterid I group remained unclear. In a phylogenetic study of DNA sequences of selected genes, Boraginales was resolved as sister to Lamiales sensu APG, but that result had only 65% maximum likelihood bootstrap support.[9]

In the 2016 APG IV system Boraginales is an order with only one family Boraginaceae, which includes the former family Codonaceae. At the time of the APG IV consensus there was insufficient support to further divide this monophyletic group further.[10] (For a complete discussion of the history of the taxonomy of Boraginales, see BWG (2016))
Boraginales Working Group

Following the publication of APG IV, a collaborative group along similar lines to the APG, the Boraginales Working Group, was formed[1] to further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the Boragnaceae s.l..[6][11]

As a result it has been split into eleven families, including: Boraginaceae s.s. or s.str., Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, and Hydrophyllaceae. A number of these were monogeneric. Boraginaceae is hard to characterize morphologically if it includes the genera Codon and Wellstedia.[12] Codon was long regarded as an unusual member of Hydrophyllaceae, but in 1998, a molecular phylogenetic study showed that it is closer to Boraginaceae,[13] and both Codon and Wellstedia have been allocated to their own families, Codonaceae and Wellstediaceae.[11][14]

The achlorophyllous holoparasites Lennoa and Pholisma were once regarded as a family, Lennoaceae, but it is now known that they form a clade that is nested within Ehretiaceae.[15] Some studies have indicated that Hydrophyllaceae is paraphyletic if the tribe Nameae is included within it, but further studies will be needed to resolve this issue.[9]

The inclusion of the genus Hoplestigma in Boraginales was occasionally doubted until it was strongly confirmed in a cladistic study in 2014.[8] Hoplestigma is the closest relative of Cordiaceae and it has been recommended that the latter be expanded to include it.

Hydrolea was thought to belong in Hydrophyllaceae for more than a century after it was placed there by Asa Gray, but it is now known to belong in the order Solanales as sister to Sphenoclea.[9]

Pteleocarpa was long regarded as an anomaly, and was usually placed in Boraginales, but with considerable doubt. The molecular evidence strongly supports it as sister to Gelsemiaceae,[9] and that family has been expanded to include it.[16]

BWG 2019.
Berchtold & Presl 1820.
Lindley 1853.
Jussieu 1789.
d'Aillon 2016.
BWG 2016.
Kadereit & Bittrich 2016.
Weigend et al 2014.
Refulio-Rodriguez, Nancy F.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2014). "Phylogeny of Lamiidae". American Journal of Botany. 101 (2): 287–299. doi:10.3732/ajb.1300394. PMID 24509797.
APG 2016.
Hilger & Cole 2018.
James I. Cohen. 2014. "A phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular characters of Boraginaceae: evolutionary relationships, taxonomy, and patterns of character evolution". Cladistics 30(2):139-169. doi:10.1111/cla.12036
Ferguson 1998.
Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). "Boraginaceae" At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below)
Marc Gottschling, Federico Luebert, Hartmut H. Hilger, and James S. Miller. 2014. "Molecular delimitations in the Ehretiaceae (Boraginales)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 72:1-6. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.12.005

Lena Struwe, Valerie L. Soza, Sugumaran Manickam, and Richard G. Olmstead. 2014. "Gelsemiaceae (Gentianales) expanded to include the enigmatic Asian genus Pteleocarpa". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 175(4):482–496. doi:10.1111/boj.12182.


Kadereit, Joachim W.; Bittrich, Volker, eds. (2016). "Conspectus of the families of Boraginales". Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Aquifoliales, Boraginales, Bruniales, Dipsacales, Escalloniales, Garryales, Paracryphiales, Solanales (except Convolvulaceae), Icacinaceae, Metteniusaceae, Vahliaceae. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-3-319-28534-4.
APG (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Ferguson, Diane M. (July 1998). "Phylogenetic Analysis and Relationships in Hydrophyllaceae Based on ndhF Sequence Data". Systematic Botany. 23 (3): 253–268. doi:10.2307/2419504. JSTOR 2419504.
Luebert, Federico; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Frohlich, Michael W.; Gottschling, Marc; Guilliams, C. Matt; Hasenstab-Lehman, Kristen E.; Hilger, Hartmut H.; Miller, James S.; Mittelbach, Moritz; Nazaire, Mare; Nepi, Massimo; Nocentini, Daniele; Ober, Dietrich; Olmstead, Richard G.; Selvi, Federico; Simpson, Michael G.; Sutorý, Karel; Valdés, Benito; Walden, Genevieve K.; Weigend, Maximilian (24 June 2016). "Boraginales Working Group: Familial classification of the Boraginales". Taxon. 65 (3): 502–522. doi:10.12705/653.5.
"Boraginales Working Group". 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
Weigend, Maximilian; Luebert, Federico; Gottschling, Marc; Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Hilger, Hartmut H.; Miller, James S. (October 2014). "From capsules to nutlets-phylogenetic relationships in the Boraginales". Cladistics. 30 (5): 508–518. doi:10.1111/cla.12061. S2CID 11954615.
Hilger, Hartmut H; Cole, Theodor H C (2018). "Boraginales Phylogeny Poster". Boraginales Working Group. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
d'Aillon, Francois Gros (2016). "The family Boraginaceae Jussieu". UQAM. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
Diane, N., H. Förther, and H. H. Hilger. 2002. A systematic analysis of Heliotropium, Tournefortia, and allied taxa of the Heliotropiaceae (Boraginales) based on ITS1 sequences and morphological data. American Journal of Botany 89: 287-295 (online abstract here).
Gottschling, M., H. H. Hilger 1, M. Wolf 2, N. Diane. 2001. Secondary Structure of the ITS1 Transcript and its Application in a Reconstruction of the Phylogeny of Boraginales. Plant Biology (Stuttgart) 3: 629-636 (abstract online here)

Historical sources
Berchtold, Friedrich von; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820). "Boragineae". O Přirozenosti Rostlin [On the Nature of Plants]. Prague: Krala Wiljma Endersa. p. 244.
Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1789). "Borragineae". Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. Paris. pp. 128–132. OCLC 5161409.
Lindley, John (1853) [1846]. "Boraginaceae". The Vegetable Kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system (3rd. ed.). London: Bradbury & Evans. pp. 655–656.

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