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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Campanulaceae
Subfamilia: Campanuloideae
Genus: Canarina
Species: C. abyssinica – C. canariensis – C. eminii
Name

Canarina L., Mant. Pl. 2: 588 (1771), nom. cons.
Type species: Canarina canariensis (L.) Vatke, Linnaea 38: 700 (1874) described as synonym Canarina campanula L., Mant. Pl. 2: 225 (1771), nom. superfl.

Synonyms

Homotypic
Pernetya Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat.: 150 (1777), nom. superfl.
Heterotypic
Mindium Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 134 (1763)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1771. Mantissa Plantarum Altera. Generum Editionis VI et Specierum Editionis II. Holmiae [Stockholm]. pp. [6] + 143­–587, Appendix. BHL Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Canarina in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 July 15. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Canarina. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 July 15.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Canarina. Published online. Accessed: July 15 2014.

Canarina is a genus of flowering plants within the family Campanulaceae. They are herbaceous perennial vines with bell-shaped flowers. The best known species is Canarina canariensis from the laurel forests of the Canary Islands which is grown as an ornamental plant. C. canariensis is one of a group of unrelated Canarian plants that appear to be adapted for bird pollination, including the members of the genera Isoplexis and Lotus. It was once thought that the original pollinators of these plants were sunbirds which had become extinct on the Canary Islands, explaining why some of these species are rare and considered endangered (Vogel 1954; Vogel et al. 1984; Olesen 1985; Valido et al. 2004). However more recent work has shown that these plants are adequately pollinated by non-specialist flower visiting birds, particularly the Canary Islands chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) and the Canary Island spectacled warbler (Sylvia conspicillata orbitalis) (Olesen 1985; Ollerton et al. 2008), and in fact show some specific adaptations to infrequent pollination by these birds, such as extended flower lifespans (Ollerton et al. 2008), and a hexose-dominated sugar ratio of the nectar (Dupont et al. 2004).

In frost-prone areas, Canarina canariensis is best grown under glass in the winter.[1] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]
Species

Species include:
Image Scientific name Distribution
Canarina abyssinica Engl. Ethiopia
IMG 4218-Canarina canariensis.jpg Canarina canariensis (L.) Vatke (Canary Island bellflower) Canary Islands
Canarina eminii Asch. ex Schweinf. tropical areas in East Africa


References

RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.

"RHS Plant Selector - Canarina canariensis". Retrieved 15 April 2020.

USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN): Canarina
Dupont, YL, Hansen, DM, Rasmussen, JT & Olesen, JM (2004) Evolutionary changes in nectar sugar composition associated with switches between bird and insect pollination: the Canarian bird-flower element revisited. Functional Ecology 18: 670–676.
Olesen, JM (1985) The Macaronesian bird-flower element and its relation to bird and bee opportunists.
Ollerton J, Cranmer L, Stelzer R, Sullivan S, Chittka L (2008) Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants. Nature Precedings
Valido A, Dupont YL, Olesen JM (2004) Bird-flower interactions in the Macaronesian islands. Journal of Biogeography 31: 1945-1953
Vogel S (1954) Blütenbiologische Typen als Elemente der Sippengliederung. Botanische Studien (Jena) 1:1-338
Vogel S, Westerkamp C, Thiel B, Gessner K (1984) Ornithophilie auf den Canarischen Inseln. Plant Systematics and Evolution 146:225-248

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