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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Boraginales

Familia: Boraginaceae
Subfamilia: Cordioideae
Genus: Cordia
Subgenera: C. subg. Cordia – C. subg. Gerascanthus – C. subg. Myxa
Species:

a

C. aberrans – C. acutifolia – C. affinis – C. africana – C. allartii – C. alliodora – C. americana – C. anabaptista – C. anisophylla – C. aristeguietae – C. aspera – C. aurantiaca
b

C. balanocarpa – C. bantamensis – C. bequaertii – C. bicolor – C. blanchetii – C. blancoi – C. bogotensis – C. boissieri – C. bordasii – C. borinquensis – C. brachytricha – C. brasiliensis – C. brunnea – C. buxifolia

c

C. cabanayensis – C. caffra – C. calocoma – C. cardenasiana – C. chaetodonta – C. chamissoniana – C. cicatricosa – C. clarkei – C. cochinchinensis – C. colimensis – C. collococca – C. colombiana – C. copulata – C. cordiformis – C. correae – C. crassifolia – C. crenata – C. crispiflora – C. croatii – C. curbeloi – C. cymosa

d

C. decandra – C. decipiens – C. dentata – C. dewevrei – C. dichotoma – C. diffusa – C. dillenii – C. diversifolia – C. dodecandra – C. dodecandria – C. domestica – C. domingensis – C. dubiosa – C. dumosa – C. dwyeri

e

C. ecalyculata – C. elaeagnoides – C. ellenbeckii – C. elliptica – C. ensifolia – C. eriostigma – C. exaltata

f

C. fallax – C. fanchoniae – C. faulknerae – C. fischeri – C. fissistyla – C. fitchii – C. fragrantissima – C. fulva – C. furcans – C. fusca

g

C. galeottiana – C. gardneri – C. gentryi – C. gerascanthus – C. gilletii – C. glabrata – C. glabrifolia – C. glazioviana – C. globifera – C. globulifera – C. goeldiana – C. goetzei – C. gracilipes – C. grandicalyx – C. grandis – C. greggii – C. guacharaca – C. guerkeana – C. guineensis

h

C. harrisii – C. hartwissiana – C. hatschbachii – C. heccaidecandra

i

C. ignea – C. iguaguana – C. igualensis – C. incognita – C. insignis – C. intermedia

k

C. killipiana – C. kingstoniana – C. koemariae

l

C. laevifrons – C. laevigata – C. laevior – C. lasiocalyx – C. lasseri – C. latiloba – C. leonis – C. leslieae – C. leucocoma – C. leucosebestena – C. liesneri – C. lomatoloba – C. longiflora – C. longipetiolata – C. lowryana – C. lucidula – C. lutea

m

C. macleodii – C. macrantha – C. macrophylla – C. macvaughii – C. magnoliifolia – C. mairei – C. mandimbana – C. marioniae – C. megalantha – C. megiae – C. membranacea – C. meridensis – C. mexiana – C. mhaya – C. micayensis – C. micronesica – C. microsebestena – C. millenii – C. moluccana – C. molundensis – C. monoica – C. morelosana – C. mukuensis – C. myxa

n

C. naidophila – C. nervosa – C. nodosa

o

C. oblongifolia – C. obovata – C. obtusa – C. ochnacea – C. octandra – C. oliveri – C. oncocalyx –

p

C. panamensis – C. panicularis – C. parvifolia – C. perbella – C. perrottetii – C. peteri – C. pilosa – C. pilosissima – C. platythyrsa – C. porcata – C. propinqua – C. protracta – C. prunifolia – C. pulverulenta

q

C. quercifolia

r

C. ramanujamii – C. restingae – C. rickseckeri – C. ripicola – C. rogersii – C. rufescens

s

C. saccellia – C. sagotii – C. salvadorensis – C. santacruzensis – C. scabra – C. scabrifolia – C. schatziana – C. schottiana – C. sebestena – C. seleriana – C. sellowiana – C. senegalensis – C. sericicalyx – C. silvestris – C. sinensis – C. sipapoi – C. skutchii – C. somaliensis – C. sonorae – C. splendida – C. sprucei – C. stellifera – C. stenoclada – C. stenoloba – C. stuhlmannii – C. subcordata – C. subdentata – C. suckertii – C. sulcata – C. superba

t

C. tacarcunensis – C. taguahyensis – C. tarodae – C. tetrandra – C. thaisiana – C. tinifolia – C. toqueve – C. torrei – C. tortuensis – C. trachyphylla – C. triangularis – C. trichoclada – C. trichocladophylla – C. trichostemon – C. trichotoma – C. troyana – C. truncatifolia

u

C. ucayaliensis – C. ulei – C. umbellifera – C. uncinulata

v

C. valenzuelana – C. vanhermannii – C. vargasii – C. varroniifolia – C. venosa – C. vestita – C. vignei

w

C. watsonii – C. weddellii – C. williamsii

y

C. yombomba

Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Cordia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct 09. Reference page.

Name

Cordia L. (1753), nom. cons.

Type species: Cordia myxa L., typ. cons. Designated by Britton & Shafer (1908).

Synonyms

Acnadena Raf.
Ascanica Crantz
Auxemma Miers
Borellia Neck.
Bourgia Scop.
Calyptracordia Britton
Carpiphea Raf.
Catonia Raf.
Cerdana Ruiz & Pav.
Cienkowskia Regel & Rach
Coilanthera Raf.
Collococcus P.Browne
Colococca Raf.
Cordiada Vell.
Cordiopsis Desv.
Ectemis Raf.
Gerascanthus P.Browne
Gynaion A.DC.
Hemigymnia Griff.
Lithocardium L. ex Kuntze
Macielia Vand.
Macria Ten.
Myxa (Endl.) Lindl.
Novella Raf.
Paradigma Miers
Patagonica Boehm.
Patagonula L.
Physoclada (DC.) Lindl.
Pilicordia (A.DC.) Lindl.
Plethostephia Miers
Purkinjia C.Presl
Quarena Raf.
Rhabdocalyx Lindl.
Saccellium Bonpl.
Salimori Adans.
Sebestena Gaertn.
Sebestena Boehm.
Toquera Raf.
Tsiemtani Adans.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental:Tropical & Subtrop.
Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe
Introduced into:
East Aegean Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hawaii, Iraq, Libya, Marquesas, Mauritius, Rodrigues, Réunion, Society Is., Turkey

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus I. Pp. [I–XII], 1–560. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page. : 190.

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Shafer, J.A. 1908. North American Trees 819.
Feuillet, C. 2013. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia. PhytoKeys 23: 19–24. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.23.4827 Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Cordia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct 09. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Cordia. Published online. Accessed: Oct 09 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Cordia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct 09.
Catalogue of Life: 2020 Annual Checklist
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Cordia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 2017 Oct. 31.

Vernacular names
suomi: Karhepuut

Cordia is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It contains about 300 species of shrubs and trees, that are found worldwide, mostly in warmer regions. Many of the species are commonly called manjack, while bocote may refer to several Central American species in Spanish. The generic name honours German botanist and pharmacist Valerius Cordus (1515–1544).[3] Like most other Boraginaceae, the majority have trichomes (hairs) on the leaves.

Taxonomy

The taxonomy of Cordia is complex and controversial. Gottschling et al. (2005) say this is partly due to "extraordinarily high intraspecific variability" in some groups of species, making identification difficult, and partly due to new taxa having been "airily described on the basis of poorly preserved herbarium specimens".[4]
Selected species
Main article: List of Cordia species

Cordia africana Lam. – White manjack
Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken – Spanish elm, Ecuador laurel, salmwood, bocote (Neotropics)[5]
Cordia boissieri A.DC. – Anacahuita, Texas olive (southern Texas, Northern Mexico)
Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. – Black sage, wild sage
Cordia dentata Poir. – White manjack
Cordia dichotoma G.Forst – Fragrant manjack, bird lime tree (Tropical Asia and Australasia)[6]
Cordia leucophlyctis Hook f. – (endemic to the Galápagos Islands)
Cordia lutea Lam. – Yellow cordia (western South America, including the Galápagos Islands)
Cordia monoica
Cordia myxa L. – Assyrian plum (South Asia)
Cordia domestica is treated as a separate species by some sources, and as C. myxa var. domestica by others.[7] Cordia obliqua Willd. (the clammy cherry) has been placed in the "Cordia myxa complex",[8] or treated as a synonym for Cordia dichotoma.[9]
Cordia platythyrsa Baker
Cordia rupicola Urban – Puerto Rico manjack (Puerto Rico)
Cordia sebestena L. – Geiger tree, large-leaf Geigertree (southern Florida, Greater Antilles, Central America)
Cordia sinensis Lam. (=C. gharaf) – Grey-leafed saucerberry
Cordia subcordata Lam. – Kou, tou, marer (Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, northern Australia, Pacific Islands)
Cordia sulcata DC. – Mucilage manjack,

laylay, white manjack, wild clammy cherry
Formerly placed here

Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam. (as C. retusa Vahl)[10]

Ecology

Cordia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, such as Endoclita malabaricus, Bucculatrix caribbea, and Bucculatrix cordiaella.[11] The wild olive tortoise beetle (Physonota alutacea) feeds on C. boissieri, C. dentata, C. inermis, and C. macrostachya.[12]
Uses
Ornamental

Many members of this genus have fragrant, showy flowers and are popular in gardens, although they are not especially hardy.[13]
As food

A number of the tropical species have edible fruits, known by a wide variety of names including clammy cherries, glue berries, sebesten, or snotty gobbles. In India, the fruits of local species are used as a vegetable, raw, cooked, or pickled, and are known by many names, including lasora in Hindi. One such species is fragrant manjack (C. dichotoma), which is called gunda or tenti dela in Hindi and lasura in Nepali. The fruit of the Fragrant Manjack is called phoà-pò·-chí (破布子), 樹子仔, or 樹子(Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chhiū-chí) in Taiwan where they are eaten pickled.
Glue

The white, gooey inner pulp of the fruits is traditionally used to make glue.
Wood

The wood of several Cordia species is commercially harvested. Ecuador laurel (C. alliodora), ziricote (C. dodecandra), Spanish elm (C. gerascanthus), and C. goeldiana are used to make furniture and doors in Central and South America.[13]

Ziricote[14] and bocote[15] are sometimes used as tonewoods for making the backs and sides of high-end acoustic guitars such as the Richard Thompson signature model from Lowden.[16] Similarly, drums are made from C. abyssinica, C. millenii, and C. platythyrsa due to the resonance of the wood.[17]
Smoking

Cordia leaves can be dried and used to smoke marijuana with.[18]
Gallery

C. sinensis foliage and fruit.

C. sinensis trees.

Fruits of Cordia goetzei

References
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cordia.
Wikispecies has information related to Cordia.

"Cordia L." TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
"Cordia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: A-C. CRC Press. pp. 612–613. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
Gottschling, Marc; Miller, James S.; Weigend, Maximilian & Hilger, Hartmut H. (2005-10-01). "Congruence of a Phylogeny of Cordiaceae (Boraginales) Inferred from ITS1 Sequence Data with Morphology, Ecology, and Biogeography". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 92 (3): 425–437. JSTOR 40035480.
Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees. 1. Elsevier. pp. 252–260. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5.
"Cordia dichotoma Forst. f." Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Plant Growth Facilities. University of Connecticut. 2009-10-06. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
"Cordia domestica". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
"Cordia obliqua". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2015-06-26.
"Cordia obliqua". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
"Species Records of Cordia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
Davis, Donald R.; Bernard Landry; Lazaro Roque-albelo (2002). "Two new Neotropical species of Bucculatrix leaf miners (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae) reared from Cordia (Boraginaceae)". Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 109 (2): 277–294. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.79591.
Quinn, Mike. "Wild Olive Tortoise Beetle Physonota alutacea Boheman, 1854". Texas Beetle Information. Texas Entomology. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
Bennett, Masha (2003). Pulmonarias and the Borage Family. Timber Press. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-0-88192-589-0.
http://www.lmii.com/CartTwo/thirdproducts.asp?CategoryName=+Backs+and+Sides&NameProdHeader=Ziricote Luthiers Mercantile page about Ziricote
http://www.lmii.com/CartTwo/thirdproducts.asp?CategoryName=+Backs+and+Sides&NameProdHeader=Bocote Luthiers Mercantile page about Ziricote
Presad, Anil (October 2009). "Richard Thompson" (PDF). Guitar Player: 50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10.
Tudge, Colin (2007). The Tree. Random House. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-307-39539-9.
"Why leaf pre-rolled cones make the cleanest, tobacco-free blunts". Leafly. 2021-01-13. Retrieved 2021-01-14.

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