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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Gesneriaceae
Subfamilia: Didymocarpoideae
Tribus: Trichosporeae
Subtribus: Didymocarpinae
Genus: Didymocarpus
Species: D. acuminatus – D. adenocalyx – D. adenocarpus – D. albicalyx – D. andersonii – D. anningensis – D. antirrhinoides – D. aromaticus – D. aurantiacus – D. aureoglandulosus – D. barbinervius – D. bhutanicus – D. bicolor – D. biserratus – D. bracteatus – D. brevicalyx – D. burkei – D. cinereus – D. citrinus – D. corchorifolius – D. cordatus – D. cortusifolius – D. curvicapsa – D. denticulatus – D. dissectus – D. dongrakensis – D. elatior – D. epithemoides – D. formosus – D. gageanus – D. geesinkianus – D. glandulosus – D. graciliflorus – D. grandidentatus – D. heucherifolius – D. hookeri – D. inflatus – D. insulsus – D. jaesonensis – D. kasinii – D. kerrii – D. leiboensis – D. lineicapsa – D. macrophyllus – D. margaritae – D. medogensis – D. megaphyllus – D. mengtze – D. moellerii – D. mollis – D. mortonii – D. nanophyton – D. newmannii – D. oblongus – D. ovatus – D. parryorum – D. pauciflorus – D. paucinervius – D. payapensis – D. pedicellatus – D. platycalyx – D. podocarpus – D. poilanei – D. praeteritus – D. primulifolius – D. pseudomengtze – D. pteronema – D. puhoatensis – D. punduanus – D. purpureobracteatus – D. purpureopictus – D. purpureus – D. pygmaeus – D. reniformis – D. robustus – D. rufipes – D. salviiflorus – D. silvarum – D. sinoprimulinus – D. stenanthos – D. stenocarpus – D. subpalmatinervis – D. sulphureus – D. tonghaiensis – D. tribounii – D. triplotrichus – D. tristis – D. villosus – D. violaceus – D. wattianus – D. wengeri – D. yuenlingensis – D. yunnanensis – D. zhenkangensis – D. zhufengensis
Name

Didymocarpus Wall., Edinburgh Philos. J. 1: 378. (1819), nom. et typ. cons.

Type species: Didymocarpus primulifolius D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 123. (1825)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Roettlera Vahl
Rottlera Vahl

References

Wallich, N. 1819. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 1: 378.

Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. 2000. World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141. [unavailable to the public] Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Didymocarpus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Aug 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Didymocarpus. Published online. Accessed: Aug 26 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Didymocarpus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Aug 26.
Hassler, M. 2021. Didymocarpus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Aug 26. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Didymocarpus. Accessed: 26 Aug 2021.

Vernacular names
中文: 长蒴苣苔属

Didymocarpus[1][2] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Gesneriaceae and typical of the tribe Didymocarpeae. There are about 100 known species distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, southern China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula, with one species extending up to northern Sumatra. Some members of the genus are known for their medicinal properties, especially to cure diseases related to the kidneys.[3]

Description

The members of the genus are typically small perennial, deciduous herbs with annual flowering stems. Flowering shoots are produced from the basal rootstock or condensed rhizome during the onset of rainy season which dies after producing the fruits. Leaves are opposite, decussate and mostly unequal within pairs. The inflorescence is pair-flowered cyme, typical of the Gesneriad family, with few to many flowers. The calyx is often united for more than half of its length or rarely free to the base. The corolla is tubular, widening towards the mouth with a bilabiate limbs. The flowers are devoid of nectar are subtended by brightly colored bracteoles. Floral color can be hues of reds, oranges, yellows, and violet often with stripes on the lobes. The flower has two stamens with slender filaments and cohering anthers. The ovary is cylindrical with often with stipe and an entirely capitate stigma. Fruit capsules are straight, orthocarpic, bivalved, and dehisce loculicidally.
Taxonomy

The genus Didymocarpus was described by Nathaniel Wallich in 1819 based on specimens he received from Nepal. Due to lack of a clear definition of the generic boundaries, more than 180 species and 450 names were affiliated to this genus over the time.[4] These included many morphologically distinct species from Madagascar, Western ghats of India and Southeast Asia. The genus was remodeled and redefined by Weber and Burt in 1998 with about 80 species. Recently, many new species were described from India, China and Thailand and the genus now comprises about 100 species.[5][6]
Species

The Catalogue of Life lists:[2]

Didymocarpus acuminatus
Didymocarpus adenocalyx
Didymocarpus adenocarpus
Didymocarpus albicalyx
Didymocarpus andersonii
Didymocarpus antirrhinoides
Didymocarpus aromaticus
Didymocarpus aurantiacus
Didymocarpus aureoglandulosus
Didymocarpus bancanus
Didymocarpus barbinervius
Didymocarpus bhutanicus
Didymocarpus bicolor
Didymocarpus biserratus
Didymocarpus bracteatus
Didymocarpus burkei
Didymocarpus cinereus
Didymocarpus citrinus
Didymocarpus corchorifolius
Didymocarpus cordatus
Didymocarpus cortusifolius
Didymocarpus curvicapsa
Didymocarpus denticulatus
Didymocarpus dongrakensis
Didymocarpus elatior
Didymocarpus epithemoides
Didymocarpus gageanus
Didymocarpus geesinkianus
Didymocarpus glandulosus
Didymocarpus graciliflorus
Didymocarpus grandidentatus
Didymocarpus heucherifolius
Didymocarpus hookeri
Didymocarpus insulsus
Didymocarpus kerrii
Didymocarpus labiatus
Didymocarpus leiboensis
Didymocarpus lineicapsa
Didymocarpus macrophyllus
Didymocarpus margaritae
Didymocarpus medogensis
Didymocarpus megaphyllus
Didymocarpus mengtze
Didymocarpus mollis
Didymocarpus mortonii
Didymocarpus nanophyton
Didymocarpus newmannii
Didymocarpus nigrescens
Didymocarpus oblongus
Didymocarpus ovatus
Didymocarpus parryorum
Didymocarpus paucinervius
Didymocarpus pedicellatus
Didymocarpus perakensis
Didymocarpus platycalyx
Didymocarpus podocarpus
Didymocarpus poilanei
Didymocarpus praeteritus
Didymocarpus primulifolius
Didymocarpus pseudomengtze
Didymocarpus pteronema
Didymocarpus pulcher
Didymocarpus punduanus
Didymocarpus purpureobracteatus
Didymocarpus purpureopictus
Didymocarpus purpureus
Didymocarpus reniformis
Didymocarpus robustus
Didymocarpus rufipes
Didymocarpus salviiflorus
Didymocarpus silvarum
Didymocarpus sinoprimulinus
Didymocarpus sinoindicus
Didymocarpus stenanthos
Didymocarpus stenocarpus
Didymocarpus subpalmatinervis
Didymocarpus sulphureus
Didymocarpus triplotrichus
Didymocarpus tristis
Didymocarpus wattianus
Didymocarpus wengeri
Didymocarpus venosus
Didymocarpus villosus
Didymocarpus violaceus
Didymocarpus yuenlingensis
Didymocarpus yunnanensis
Didymocarpus zhenkangensis
Didymocarpus zhufengensis

References

Wall. (1819) Edinburgh Philos. J. 1: 378.
Roskov Y.; Kunze T.; Orrell T.; Abucay L.; Paglinawan L.; Culham A.; Bailly N.; Kirk P.; Bourgoin T.; Baillargeon G.; Decock W.; De Wever A. (2014). Didžiulis V. (ed.). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
Kaur, Gurpreet; Lone, Irshad A.; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M. Sarwar (2007-01-05). "Protective effect of Didymocarpus pedicellata on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced renal oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 165 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2006.10.012. ISSN 0009-2797. PMID 17140554.
Weber, A.; Burtt, B.L.; Vitek, E. (2000). "Materials for a revision of Didymocarpus (Gesneriaceae)". Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Serie B für Botanik und Zoologie. 102: 441–475. ISSN 0255-0105. JSTOR 41767198.
Prasanna, Naibi Shrungeshwara; Gowda, Vinita (2020-05-20). "Rediscovery of four narrow endemic Didymocarpus species (Gesneriaceae) from Mizoram, India, with revised species descriptions and lectotypifications". PhytoKeys (148): 1–19. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.148.49772. ISSN 1314-2003. PMC 7253502. PMID 32508506.
"Rheedea". rheedea.in. Retrieved 2021-01-06.

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