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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Ranunculales

Familia: Ranunculaceae
Subfamilia: Ranunculoideae
Tribus: Ranunculeae
Genus: Ficaria
Species: F. calthifolia – F. fascicularis – F. ficarioides – F. popovii – F. verna
Species: F. fascicularis - F. ficarioides - F. stepporum - F. varia -

Name

Ficaria Guett., Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mém. Math. Phys. (Paris 4to) 1750: 355. 1754.

Typus: F. verna
Huds.

Note: There is no consensus as regards the species circumscription.
Synonyms

Homotypic
Ficaria Schaeff., Bot. Exped. 156. Oct-Dec 1760. nom. illeg.

References

Emadzade, K., Lehnebach, C.A., Lockhart, P.J. & Hörandl, E. 2010. A molecular phylogeny, morphology and classification of genera of Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae). Taxon 59(3): 809–828. DOI: 10.1002/tax.593011 JSTOR PDF Reference page. Proposes segregation of this and other minor genera from Ranunculus
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Ficaria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jan. 16. Reference page. As a synonym of Ranunculus
Hassler, M. 2020. Ficaria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jan. 16. Reference page. Accepts two species
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Ficaria. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 16 2020.
Paun, O., Lehnebach, C.A., Johansson, J.T., Lockhart, P.J. & Hörandl, E. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Ranunculus and allied genera (Ranunculaceae) in the Mediterranean region and in the European Alpine System. Taxon 54(4): 911–930. DOI: 10.2307/25065478 JSTOR ResearchGate Reference page.
Euro+Med 2006 onwards: Ficaria in Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 12 8. Uncertain synonymy.

Vernacular names
العربية: ماميران
čeština: orsej
հայերեն: Թզարմատ
polski: Ziarnopłon
русский: Чистяк

Ficaria is a small genus of several species of plants in the family Ranunculaceae, which were previously grouped with Ranunculus.[1] The genus includes Ficaria verna, known as fig buttercup or lesser celandine, and related species. The name "Ficaria" is Classical Latin for fig.[2] Plants in the genus are closely related to true buttercups, but generally have only three sepals and swollen smooth achenes.

Splitting of genus Ranunculus

Molecular investigation of the genus Ranunculus revealed that it was not monophyletic with respect to a number of other recognized genera in the family – e.g. Ceratocephala, Halerpestes, Hamadryas, Laccopetalum, Myosurus, Oxygraphis, Paroxygraphis and Trautvetteria. The work revealed the need to separate Ficaria from Ranunculus, and both were added to the tribe Ranunculeae.[3]
Toxicity

All Ficaria and Ranunculus species are poisonous when eaten fresh by cattle, horses, and other livestock, but their acrid taste and the blistering of the mouth caused by their poison means they are usually left uneaten. Poisoning can occur where buttercups are abundant in overgrazed fields where little other edible plant growth is left, and the animals eat them out of desperation. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, excessive salivation, colic, and severe blistering of the mouth, mucous membranes and gastrointestinal tract. When Ranunculus plants are handled, naturally occurring ranunculin is broken down to form protoanemonin, which is known to cause contact dermatitis in humans; care should therefore be exercised in extensive handling of the plants.[4] The toxins are degraded by drying, so hay containing dried buttercups is safe.
Species list

Ficaria fascicularis
Ficaria ficarioides
Ficaria popovii
Ficaria verna - Lesser celandine

See also

List of plants poisonous to equines

References

Hörandl, E.; Paun, O.; Johansson, J.T.; Lehnebach, C.; Armstrong, T.; Chen, L.; Lockhart, P. (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary traits in Ranunculus s.l. (Ranunculaceae) inferred from ITS sequence analysis". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (2): 305–327. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.02.009. PMID 15955512.
"ficarius - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
Emadzade, K.; Lehnebach, C.; Lockhart, P.; Hörandl, E. (2010). "A molecular phylogeny, morphology and classification of genera of Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae)". Taxon. 59 (3): 809–828. doi:10.1002/tax.593011.

"Ranunculus". Botanical Dermatology Database. Retrieved October 18, 2013.

Sources
"Ficaria". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

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