- Art Gallery -

Guazuma ulmifolia

Guazuma ulmifolia (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Malvales
Familia: Malvaceae
Subfamilia: Byttnerioideae
Tribus: Theobromeae
Genus: Guazuma
Species: Guazuma ulmifolia

Name

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

References

* J. B. A. P. M. de Lamarck & L. A. J. Desrousseaux, Encycl. 3:52. 1789
* USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Data from 07-Oct-06]. 312760

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. is also commonly known as guácima, guácimo , tablote, majagua de toro tapaculo, cualote, cambá-acá, as well as many other names. It is a small to medium sized tree normally found in pastures and disturbed forests. This flowering plant from the Malvaceae family grows up to 30m in height and 30–40 cm in diameter. It is widely found in areas such as the Caribbean, South American, Central America and Mexico serving a number of uses that varies from its value in carpentry to a utility in medicine.


Common Names

(Bengali) : nipaltunth (English) : bastard cedar, bay cedar, pigeon wood, West Indian elm (French) : Bois de hêtre, Bois d'homme, Bois d'orme (Portuguese) : bois d'orme, embira, fruta-de-macaco, mutamba, orme d'Amérique, pojó (Spanish) : bacedar, cambá-acá, coco, contamal, cualote, guácima, Guácima cimaronna, Guácima de caballo, guácimo, guazuma, iumanasi, kamba aka guasa, majagua de toro, papayillo, tablote, tapaculo (Tamil) : rudrasam, tenbachai, thenmaram, tubakki

Description

Botany


Guazuma ulmifolia grows to 30 m in height and 30–40 cm in diameter and comes with a rounded crown. Leaves are distributed in an alternate pattern with 2 rows in assembled flatly. The leaves are ovate to lance-shaped, finely saw toothed margin, usually have a rough texture and are 6–13 cm in length and 2.5–6 cm in diameter. 3-5 main veins arise from the base (rounded or notched, unequal sided) of the leaf which has a darker green upper surface and a fairer green color underneath. They are virtually hairless and thin. The leaf stalks of this species are lean, approximately 6-12mm long, and are covered with small “star-shaped” hairs.
Guazuma Ulmifolia flowers.

The panicles (indeterminate flower clusters) are in a branched pattern around 2.5–5 cm in length and are found at the bottom of the leaves. The flowers come in many, are short stalked, small in size, have a brown-yellow color, five parted, 1 cm in length and have a small fragrance to them. The calyx contains are lobed (2-3), have hairs that are brown or light grey in color, as well as greenish. They have 5 petals with a yellow-like stamen, 15anthers per pistil, 5 stigmas (combined), ovary lighter green in color with hairs, and also contains a style. The fruit which have capsules that are round to elliptical in shape are 15-25mm in length. They have many seeds which are shaped like eggs and are 3mm in length, grey in color.


Propagation

The species itself flowers throughout the year, in particular from April to October. Guazuma ulmifolia can be cultivated by either directly planting seeds or cuttings of the plant, as well as root stumps and bare-root seedlings. Before planting the seeds they needs to be soaked in boiling water for 30 seconds and the water should be drained afterwards. 7–14 days after fresh seeds are planted, germination occurs (60-80% rate).When they reach a height of 30–40 cm which is usually about 15 weeks later they are then prepared for “outplanting.” When using root stumps as a means for propagation they are left to dwell in a nursery for a period of time until the stem of the diameter reached 1.5-2.5 cm, which is usually about 5–8 months.

Pests

The Guazuma ulmifolia falls prey most commonly to the defoliating insect Phelyypera distigma. It is also faced with other defoliators such as Arsenura armida and Epitragus sp. These defoliators very rarely cause problems, but has been witnessed: Aepytus sp , Automeris rubrescens, Hylesia lineata, Lirimiris truncata and Periphoba arcaei.

Distribution

Guazuma ulmifolia is normally found in the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. Places such as India have been cultivating them or more than 100 years. Indonesia has in recent times introduced the species into their territory.

* They are native to places such as: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Virgin Islands (US)
* They are considered exotic species to: India, Indonesia


Uses

Wood

The wood of the Guazuma ulmifolia is utilized for posts, interior carpentry, light construction, boxes, crates, shoe horns, tool handles and charcoal. The wood is found to be very unproblematic to work with. The sapwood has a color of brown (light) and the heartwood is pink to brown

Fodder/Food/Shelter

Guazuma ulmifolia serves as a very vital source of fodder for livestock approaching the end of the dry season of the native array dry areas. It is the favored tree for fodder in Jamaica. The trees also serve to bestow shade in pastures. The immature fruits and leaves are given as food to horses and cattle. The fruits are also given to the hogs in Puerto Rico. The leaves and fruits are usually fed to the cattle throughout the arid season. The trees may also serve the purpose of being actual posts surrounding pastures. The seeds are edible raw or cooked

Medicinal

Clinical data supports a use of the seeds for weight loss purposes. It has also been found useful as a(n): Analeptic, Antibacterial, Antidote, Comocladia, Antiherpetic, Antiprostaglandin, Antiseptic, Antiviral, Aperitif, Astringent, Bronchodilator, CNS-Stimulant, Cytotoxic, Depurative, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emollient, Hemostat, Pectoral, Respirtory stimulant, Stomachic, Uterotonic. In traditional medicine it has also been used to treat Alopecia, Anorexia, Asthma, Bacteria, Bleeding, Bronchosis, Cancer, Childbirth, Cold, Cough, Dermatosis, Diarrhea, Dislocation, Dysentery, Elephantiasis, Fever, Flu, Gonorrhea, Heatstroke, Hemorrhoid, Hepatosis, Herpes, Infection, Leprosy, Malaria, Nephrosis, Parasite, Pneumonia, Proctosis, Prostatosis, Pulmonosis, Rash, Shigella, Sore, Sore Throat, Staphylococcus, Syphilis, Virus, Water Retention. It can be ingested in the form of the crushed seeds soaked within water. Animal studies have supported pharmacological activity of: Antimicrobial, anticancer, hair-loss, anti-inflammation, antiulcer, ACE inhibitor, antioxidant, antidiabet, anticholesterol, hypotensive


References

* Francis, John K.(1991) "Guazuma ulmifolia Lam." AF Cover fs.fed.us
* Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACT Net)
* United States Department of Agriculture Plants Database
* World of Forestry

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Source: Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License