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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Malvales
Familiae (10): Bixaceae - Cistaceae - Cytinaceae - Dipterocarpaceae - Malvaceae - Muntingiaceae - Neuradaceae - Sarcolaenaceae - Sphaerosepalaceae - Thymelaeaceae

Name

Malvales Juss., Prir. Rostlin 221. (1820).

Typus: Malva L. Sp. Pl. 2: 687. (1753).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Aquilariales Link
Bixales Lindl.
Bombacales Link
Byttneriales Link
Cistales Bercht. & J.Presl
Cytinales Dumort.
Daphnales Lindl.
Dipterocarpales Mart.
Neuradales Mart.
Sterculiales Bercht. & J.Presl
Thymelaeales Bercht. & J.Presl
Tiliales Bercht. & J.Presl

References

Jussieu, A.L. de 1820. O Prirozenosti Rostlin: 221.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Bayer, C., Fay, M.F., de Bruijn, A.Y., Savolainen, V., Morton, C.M., Kubitzki, K., & Chase, M.W. 1999. Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: A combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 129: 267–303. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1999.tb00505.x. Reference page.
Ducousso, M., Béna, G., Bourgeois, C., Buyck, B., Eyssartier, G., Vincelette, M., Rabevohitra, R., Randrihasipara, L., Dreyfus, B. & Prin, Y. 2004. The last common ancestor of Sarcolaenaceae and Asian dipterocarp trees was ectomycorrhizal before the India-Madagascar separation, about 88 million years ago. Molecular Ecology 13(1): 231–236. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.02032.x Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Malvales. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Jan. 25.

Vernacular names
العربية: خبازيات
azərbaycanca: Əməköməciçiçəklilər
беларуская: Мальвакветныя
català: Malval
čeština: slézotvaré
dansk: Katost-ordenen
Deutsch: Malvenartige
Esperanto: Malvaloj
eesti: Kassinaerilaadsed
فارسی: پنیرک‌سانان
עברית: חלמיתאים
hrvatski: Sljezolike
magyar: Mályvavirágúak
հայերեն: Փիփերթածաղկավորներ
日本語: アオイ目
한국어: 아욱목
lietuvių: Dedešviečiai
македонски: Слезовидни
മലയാളം: മാൽവേൽസ്
кырык мары: Мальва пеледӹшвлӓ
polski: Ślazowce
português: Malvales
русский: Мальвоцветные
slovenčina: slezotvaré
తెలుగు: మాల్వేలిస్
ไทย: อันดับชบา
українська: Мальвоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Cẩm quỳ
中文: 锦葵目

The Malvales are an order of flowering plants. As circumscribed by APG II-system, the order includes about 6000 species within 9 families. The order is placed in the eurosids II, which are part of the eudicots.

The plants are mostly shrubs and trees; most of its families have a cosmopolitan distribution in the tropics and subtropics, with limited expansion into temperate regions. An interesting distribution occurs in Madagascar, where three endemic families of Malvales (Sphaerosepalaceae, Sarcolaenaceae and Diegodendraceae) occur.

Many species of Malvaceae sensu lato are known for their wood, with that of Ochroma (balsa) being known for its lightness, and that of Tilia (lime, linden, or basswood) as a popular wood for carving. Fruit of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) are used as an ingredient for chocolate. Kola nuts (genus Cola) are notable for their high content of caffeine and, in past, were commonly used for preparing of various cola drinks. Other well-known members of Malvales in the APG II sense are daphnes, hibiscus, hollyhocks, okra, jute, baobab trees, cotton, kapok, and durian.

Description
Hibiscus moscheutos

The morphology of Malvales is diverse, with few common characteristics. Among those most commonly encountered are palmate leaves, connate sepals, and a specific structure and chemical composition of the seeds. The cortex is often fibrous, built of soft phloem layers.
Taxonomy

Early classifications such as that of Dahlgren placed the Malvales in the superorder Malviflorae (also called Malvanae). Family boundaries and circumscriptions of the "core" Malvales families, Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Tiliaceae, and Sterculiaceae, have long been problematic. A close relationship among these families, and particularly Malvaceae and Bombacaceae, has generally been recognized, although until recently most classification systems have maintained them as separate families. With numerous molecular phylogenies showing Sterculiaceae, Bombacaceae, and Tiliaceae as traditionally defined are either paraphyletic or polyphyletic, a consensus has been emerging for a trend to expand Malvaceae to include these three families. This expanded circumscription of Malvaceae has been recognized in the most recent version of the Thorne system, by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, and in the most recent comprehensive treatment of vascular plant families and genera, the Kubitzki system.[3]

The dominant family in the APG II-system is the extended Malvaceae (Malvaceae sensu lato) with over 4000 species, followed by Thymelaeaceae with 750 species. This expanded circumscription of Malvaceae is taken to include the families Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. Under the older Cronquist system the order contained these four "core Malvales" families plus the Elaeocarpaceae and was placed among the Dilleniidae. Some of the currently included families were placed by Cronquist in the Violales.

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Nickrent, Daniel L. "Cytinaceae are sister to Muntingiaceae (Malvales)", Taxon 56 (4): 1129-1135 (2007) (abstract)

Bayer, C. and K. Kubitzki. 2003. Malvaceae, pp. 225–311. In K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 5, Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales.

Bibliography

Alverson, W. S., K. G. Karol, D. A. Baum, M. W. Chase, S. M. Swensen, R. McCourt, and K. J. Sytsma (1998). Circumscription of the Malvales and relationships to other Rosidae: Evidence from rbcL sequence data. American Journal of Botany 85, 876–887. (Available online: Abstract)
Edlin, H. L. 1935. A critical revision of certain taxonomic groups of the Malvales. New Phytologist 34: 1-20, 122–143.
Judd, W.S., C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue (2002). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. pp. 405–410 (Malvales). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0.
Kubitzki, K. and M. W. Chase. 2003. Introduction to Malvales, pp. 12– 16. In K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 5, Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales.
du Mortier, B. C. J. (1829). Analyse des Familles de Plantes, avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent, p. 43. Imprimerie de J. Casterman, Tournay.
Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M. J. (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. http://delta-intkey.com
Whitlock, B. A. (October 2001). Malvales (Mallow). In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. (Available online: DOI | ELS site)

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