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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Rosales

Familia: Urticaceae
Tribus: Elatostemateae
Genus: Pilea
Sectiones: P. sect. Achudemia – P. sect. Dimeris – P. sect. Lecanthoides – P. sect. Pilea – P. sect. Tetrameris – P. sect. Urticella

Species: P. abbreviata – P. acanthospermoides – P. acuminata – P. acunae – P. adamsiana – P. affinis – P. alaotrae – P. alfaroana – P. alongensis – P. alpestris – P. alpina – P. alsinifolia – P. alta – P. alternifolia – P. ambecarpa – P. amplistipulata – P. andersonii – P. andringitrensis – P. angolensis – P. angulata – P. angustata – P. angustifolia – P. anisophylla – P. ansincola – P. anthotricha – P. antioquensis – P. aparadensis – P. apiculata – P. apoensis – P. appendiculata – P. approximata – P. aquarum – P. arbuscula – P. argentea – P. arguta – P. articulata – P. astrogramma – P. atroviridis – P. attenuata – P. auricularis – P. auriculata – P. balansae – P. balfourii – P. baltenweckii – P. bambuseti – P. bambusifolia – P. barahonensis – P. barbiflora – P. basicordata – P. baurii – P. beguinotii – P. bemarivensis – P. benguetensis – P. betulifolia – P. bicolor – P. bisepala – P. bissei – P. boehmerioides – P. boiviniana – P. boniana – P. borbonica – P. brachypila – P. bracteosa – P. brasiliensis – P. brassii – P. brevipetiolata – P. brevistipula – P. brittoniae – P. buchenavii – P. buchtienii – P. bullata – P. cacuminum – P. cadetii – P. cadierei – P. caespitosa – P. calcicola – P. callicometes – P. capitata – P. capitellata – P. cardiophylla – P. caribaea – P. carnosa – P. carnosula – P. castronis – P. cataractae – P. caudata – P. caulescens – P. cavaleriei – P. cavernicola – P. celebica – P. cellulosa – P. centradenioides – P. cephalantha – P. cephalophora – P. ceratocalyx – P. chamaesyce – P. chartacea – P. chiapensis – P. chotardiana – P. christii – P. citriodora – P. clandestina – P. clarana – P. clarkei – P. clementis – P. cocottei – P. commanae – P. confusa – P. conjugalis – P. consanguinea – P. cordifolia – P. cordistipulata – P. cornutocucullata – P. corona – P. coronopifolia – P. costaricensis – P. costata – P. cowellii – P. craspedodroma – P. crassifolia – P. crenata – P. crenulata – P. cruegeriana – P. cubensis – P. cuneata – P. cuneiformis – P. cuprea – P. cushiensis – P. cyclophylla – P. cymbifolia – P. daguensis – P. dataensis – P. dauciodora – P. delicatula – P. densiflora – P. depressa – P. diandra – P. dictyocarpa – P. digitata – P. discolor – P. dispar – P. distantifolia – P. diversifolia – P. dolichocarpa – P. dombeyana – P. domingensis – P. ecbolophylla – P. effusa – P. ekmanii – P. elegans – P. elegantissima – P. elizabethae – P. elliptica – P. elliptilimba – P. entradana – P. ermitensis – P. erosa – P. fairchildiana – P. falcata – P. fallax – P. fasciata – P. fendleri – P. filicina – P. filipes – P. flammula – P. flavicaulis – P. flexuosa – P. floridana – P. foetida – P. foliosa – P. fontana – P. foreroi – P. forgetii – P. formonensis – P. formosa – P. forsythiana – P. franquevilleana – P. frutescens – P. fruticosa – P. fruticulosa – P. funkikensis – P. gallowayana – P. gamboana – P. gansuensis – P. geminata – P. gesnerioides – P. glaberrima – P. glabra – P. glomerata – P. gnidioides – P. godetiana – P. goetzei – P. gomeziana – P. gongjueensis – P. goudotiana – P. gracilior – P. grandifolia – P. granmae – P. granulata – P. griffithii – P. guirana – P. guizhouensis – P. gyrophylla – P. haenkei – P. harrisii – P. hassleriana – P. hedemarkii – P. hederacea – P. helwigii – P. helxinoides – P. hemisphaerica – P. hepatica – P. herniarioides – P. herrerae – P. heteroneura – P. hexagona – P. hilariana – P. hilliana – P. hirsuta – P. hispaniolana – P. hitchcockii – P. holstii – P. hookeriana – P. howardiana – P. howelliana – P. humbertii – P. humilis – P. hyalina – P. hydra – P. hydrocotyliflora – P. hygrophila – P. imparifolia – P. impressa – P. inaequalis – P. insolens – P. intermedia – P. intumescens – P. irrorata – P. iseana – P. iteophylla – P. ivohibeensis – P. involucrata – P. jamesoniana – P. japonica – P. jayaensis – P. jeremiensis – P. johniana – P. johnsii – P. johnstonii – P. jujuyensis – P. kakurang – P. kanaii – P. killipiana – P. klossii – P. krugii – P. laciniata – P. lacorum – P. laevicaulis – P. lageensis – P. lamii – P. lamiifolia – P. lamioides – P. lanceolata – P. lancifolia – P. lapestris – P. latifolia – P. laurae – P. laxa – P. ledermannii – P. leptocardia – P. leptogramma – P. leptophylla – P. leucophaea – P. libanensis – P. lindeniana – P. linearifolia – P. lippioides – P. lobulata – P. loeseneri – P. loheri – P. lokohensis – P. lomatogramma – P. longibracteolata – P. longicaulis – P. longifolia – P. longipedunculata – P. longruiensis – P. longzhouensis – P. losensis – P. lucens – P. lucida – P. luisiana – P. luochengensis – P. lurida – P. lushuiensis – P. luzonensis – P. macbridei – P. macrantha – P. macrocarpa – P. macrocystolithica – P. maculata – P. magnicarpa – P. manniana – P. margarettae – P. marginata – P. martinii – P. matama – P. matheuxiana – P. matsudai – P. maxonii – P. mayarensis – P. media – P. mediophylla – P. medogensis – P. melastomoides – P. menghaiensis – P. mexicana – P. michaelensis – P. microcardia – P. micromeriifolia – P. microphylla – P. microrhombea – P. mimema – P. minguetii – P. minima – P. minuta – P. minutiflora – P. minutissima – P. mollis – P. monilifera – P. monticola – P. montis-wilhelmi – P. moragana – P. moroniana – P. multicaulis – P. multicellularis – P. multiflora – P. mutisiana – P. myriantha – P. myriophylla – P. napoana – P. neglecta – P. nerteroides – P. nigrescens – P. nipensis – P. nitida – P. nonggangensis – P. notata – P. nudicaulis – P. nummulariifolia – P. nutans – P. obesa – P. obetiifolia – P. oblanceolata – P. obscura – P. obtusangula – P. occulta – P. ophioderma – P. ophiticola – P. ordinata – P. orientalis – P. ovalifolia – P. ovalis – P. oxyodon – P. pachycarpa – P. pachycephala – P. pallida – P. palustris – P. pandurata – P. paniculigera – P. pansamalana – P. panzhihuaensis – P. papuana – P. parciflora – P. parietaria – P. pauciflora – P. pauciserrata – P. pavonii – P. pedroi – P. peladerosi – P. pellionioides – P. peltata – P. pennellii – P. penninervis – P. peperomioides – P. peploides – P. perfragilis – P. perrieri – P. phaeocarpa – P. pichisana – P. picta – P. pitresia – P. pittieri – P. plataniflora – P. pleuroneura – P. plicatidentata – P. plumieri – P. plumulosa – P. poeppigiana – P. pollicaris – P. polyclada – P. portlandiana – P. proctorii – P. propinqua – P. pseudonotata – P. psilogyne – P. pteridophylla – P. pterocaulis – P. pteropodon – P. pubescens – P. pulchra – P. pulegifolia – P. pumila – P. pumileoides – P. punctata – P. puracensis – P. purpurea – P. purulensis – P. pusilla – P. putridicola – P. pyrrhotricha – P. quadrata – P. quercifolia – P. racemiformis – P. racemosa – P. radicans – P. radiculosa – P. ramosissima – P. receptacularis – P. refracta – P. repanda – P. reticulata – P. rhizobola – P. rhombifolia – P. richardii – P. riedlei – P. rigida – P. rigidiuscula – P. riopalenquensis – P. riparia – P. rivoriae – P. rivularis – P. robinsonii – P. roemeri – P. rojasiana – P. rostellata – P. rostulata – P. rotundata – P. rotundinucula – P. rubiacea – P. rubriflora – P. rufa – P. rufescens – P. rugosa – P. rugosissima – P. rusbyi – P. salentana – P. salwinensis – P. samanensis – P. sanctae-crucis – P. sancti-johannis – P. saxicola – P. scandens – P. schimpffii – P. schlechteri – P. scripta – P. selbyanorum – P. selleana – P. semidentata – P. semisessilis – P. senarifolia – P. serpyllacea – P. serpyllifolia – P. serratifolia – P. serrulata – P. sessiliflora – P. sessilifolia – P. setigera – P. sevillensis – P. shaferi – P. shizongensis – P. siguaneana – P. silvicola – P. simplex – P. sinocrassifolia – P. sinofasciata – P. sinoverrucosa – P. skutchii – P. sohayakiensis – P. solandri – P. somae – P. spathulata – P. spathulifolia – P. sphenophylla – P. spicata – P. spinulosa – P. spruceana – P. squamosa – P. squamulata – P. stapfiana – P. stellarioides – P. stelluligera – P. stenoneura – P. stenophylla – P. stolonifera – P. striata – P. strigillosa – P. strigosa – P. subamplexicaulis – P. subcoriacea – P. subedentata – P. subintegerrima – P. sublobata – P. sublucens – P. submissa – P. subpubera – P. succulenta – P. suffruticosa – P. sumideroensis – P. supersedens – P. suta – P. swinglei – P. sylvatica – P. symmeria – P. tabularis – P. tatamensis – P. tatei – P. tenerrima – P. ternifolia – P. tetraphylla – P. tetrapoda – P. thouarsiana – P. thymoidea – P. tilarana – P. tippenhaueri – P. tobagensis – P. topensis – P. torbeciana – P. trianthemoides – P. trichomanophylla – P. trichosanthes – P. tridentata – P. trilobata – P. tripartita – P. triradiata – P. truncata – P. tsaratananensis – P. tsiangiana – P. tungurahuae – P. tutensis – P. umbellata – P. umbriana – P. umbrosa – P. unciformis – P. uninervis – P. urticella – P. urticifolia – P. usambarensis – P. valenzuelae – P. variegata – P. vegasana – P. venulosa – P. verbascifolia – P. vermicularis – P. verrucosa – P. versteegii – P. victoriae – P. victoriensis – P. villicaulis – P. virgata – P. vulcanica – P. weberbaueri – P. weddellii – P. weimingii – P. wightii – P. wilsonii – P. wollastonii – P. wrightiana – P. wullschlaegelii – P. yarensis – P. yuanbaoshanica – P. yunckeri – P. yunquensis – P. zaranensis
Name

Pilea Lindl., Collect. Bot. ad. t. 4 (1821), nom. cons.

Type species: Pilea muscosa Lindl., nom. illeg. (= Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Adicea Raf. ex Britton & A.Br., Ill. Fl. N.U.S. 1: 533 (1896).
Adike Raf., New Fl. 1: 63 (1836), orth. var.
Heterotypic
Achudemia Blume, Mus. Bot. 2: 57 (1856).
Type species: Achudemia javanica Blume
Adenia Torr. 1843, nom. inval. et non Forssk. (1775).
Dubrueilia Gaudich., Voy. Uranie, Bot. 495 (1830).
Type species: Dubrueilia peploides Gaudich.
Chamaecnide Nees & Mart. ex Miq. in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 4(1): 203 (1853).
Dunniella Rauschert, Taxon 31: 562 (1982).
Neopilea Leandri, Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille, sér. 6, 7–8: 46 (1950).
Sarcopilea Urb., Symb. Antill. 7(2): 201 (1912).
Type species: Sarcopilea domingensis Urb. (1912) vide Pilea fairchildiana Jestrow & Jiménez Rodr.
Smithiella Dunn, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1920: 210 (1920), nom. illeg. non Smithiella H.Peragallo & M.Peragallo, 1901
Aboriella Bennet, Indian Forester 107(7): 437 (1981).

References
Primary references

Lindley, J. 1821. Collectanea Botanica; or, Figures and Botanical Illustrations of Rare and Curious Exotic Plants ad. t. 4.

Additional references

Chen, C.J. 1982. A monograph of Pilea (Urticaceae) in China. Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 2: 1–132.
Dorr, L.J.; Stergios, B. 2014: Four new species of Andean Pilea (Urticaceae), with additional notes on the genus in Venezuela. PhytoKeys, 42: 57–76. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.42.8455 Reference page.
'eFloras 2008. Pilea in Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
eFloras 2008. Pilea in Flora of North America . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Monro, A.K. 2009. A new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica. Phytotaxa 2: 24–28. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.2.1.4Open access Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Pilea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Feb. 9. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2020. Pilea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Feb 9.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Pilea in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2020 Feb 9.
Hassler, M. 2020. Pilea. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Feb. 9. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Pilea. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 9 2020.

Vernacular names
English: Pilea
suomi: Piileat
Türkçe: Topçu çiçeği

Pilea, with 600–715 species, is the largest genus of flowering plants in the nettle family Urticaceae, and one of the larger genera in the Urticales.

It is distributed throughout the tropics, subtropics, and warm temperate regions (with the exception of Australia and New Zealand).

Description

The majority of species are succulent shade-loving herbaceous plants or shrubs, which are easily distinguished from other Urticaceae by the combination of opposite leaves (with rare exceptions) with a single ligulate intrapetiolar stipule in each leaf axil and cymose or paniculate inflorescences (again with rare exceptions).
Uses

Pilea is of little economic importance; one species is used in Chinese traditional medicine (P. plataniflora).
Horticulture

Six species have horticultural value (P. cadierei, P. grandifolia, P. involucrata, P. microphylla, P. nummulariifolia, and P. peperomioides),[1] Some pileas are grown for their ornamental foliage which is shaped like lily-pads.[2]

The ASPCA includes many peperomia species in the list of plants that are non-toxic to pets.[3]
Systematics

The genus has attracted little monographic attention since Weddell (1869), and the majority of taxonomic contributions have come from floristic treatments. To date, 787 species names have been published (International Plant Names Index, 2003) and estimates for the species number range from 250 to 1000.[4] Based on previous floristic treatments, about 30% of the species from regions not yet covered by contemporary floristic treatments may be undescribed.

The genus name Pilea is Latin for "felt cap", a reference to the calyx covering the achene.[1]
Selected species
Main article: List of Pilea species

Pilea cadierei — aluminium plant
Pilea cataractae
Pilea cavernicola
Pilea crassifolia
Pilea depressa
Pilea elegans
Pilea fontana
Pilea glaucophylla
Pilea grandifolia
Pilea involucrata — friendship plant
Pilea jamesonia
Pilea laevicaulis
Pilea microphylla — artillery plant, gunpowder plant
Pilea mollis — Moon Valley plant
Pilea myriophylla
Pilea napoana
Pilea nummulariifolia — creeping Charlie
Pilea peperomioides — Chinese money plant, missionary plant
Pilea pollicaris
Pilea pumila — Canadian clearweed
Pilea repens — black-leaf panamiga
Pilea riopalenquensis
Pilea schimpfii
Pilea selbyanorum
Pilea serpyllacea
Pilea serratifolia
Pilea spruceana
Pilea topensis
Pilea trianthemoides
Pilea trichosanthes
Pilea trilobata
Pilea tungurahuae
Pilea victoriae

Fossil record

The fossil species †Pilea cantalensis was widely distributed in Europe and West Siberia during the Miocene and Pliocene. It is related to the East Asian Pilea mongolica and to the North American Pilea pumila.[5]
References

RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Peerless, Veronica (2017). How Not to Kill Your Houseplant. DK Penguin Random House. pp. 108–109.
https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/cats-plant-list. Retrieved 17 April 2021. Missing or empty |title= (help)
(C. D. Adams, BM, personal communication).

Łańcucka-Środoniowa M.: Macroscopic plant remains from the freshwater Miocene of the Nowy Sącz Basin (West Carpathians, Poland) [Szczątki makroskopowe roślin z miocenu słodkowodnego Kotliny Sądeckiej (Karpaty Zachodnie, Polska)]. Acta Palaeobotanica 1979 20 (1): 3-117.

Britton, N.L.; Brown, A. (1913). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. Dover. pp. 634. ISBN 978-0-486-22642-2.
Fouler Rhoads, A.; Block, T.A. (2000). The Plants of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 694. ISBN 978-0-8122-3535-7.
Hortus Third, pages 872-873
Monro 2006
Monro, A.K. (2009). "A new species of Pilea(Urticaceae) from the Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica". Phytotaxa. 2: 24–28. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.2.1.4.
Strausbaugh, P.D.; Core, E.L. (1964). Flora of West Virginia (2nd ed.). Seneca Books. pp. 318–9. ISBN 978-0-89092-010-7.
Weddell, H.A. (1869). "Pilea". In De Candolle, A. (ed.). Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. 16. Paris: Victoris Masson. pp. 104–163.
USDA U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Plants Database

Further reading

Chen, C.J. (1982). "A monograph of Pilea (Urticaceae) in China". Bull. Bot. Res. 2: 1–132.
Monro, A.K. (2006). "The revision of species-rich genera: a phylogenetic framework for the strategic revision of Pilea (Urticaceae) based on cpDNA, nrDNA, and morphology". Am. J. Bot. 93 (3): 426–441. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.3.426. PMID 21646202.

Data related to Pilea at Wikispecies

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