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Salix alba

Salix alba


Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Malpighiales
Familia: Salicaceae
Genus: Salix
Subgenus: S. subg. Salix
Sectio: S. sect. Salix
Species: S.alba
Subspecies: S. a. subsp. alba - S. a. subsp. caerulea - S. a. subsp. vitellina

Name

Salix alba Linnaeus

References

* Species Plantarum 2:1021. 1753


Vernacular names
Česky: Vrba bílá
Deutsch: Silberweide
Eesti: Hõberemmelgas
Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά: Ιτιά η λευκή, Αδκιά
English: White Willow
Español: Sauce blanco
Français: Saule blanc
Italiano: Salice bianco
Русский: Ива белая, ветла
Türkçe: Ak söğüt
Українська: Верба біла

Salix alba (White Willow) is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.[1][2] The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves.

It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to green-brown. The leaves are paler than most other willows, due to a covering of very fine silky white hairs, particularly on the underside; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. It is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–5 cm long, the female catkins 3–4 cm long at pollination, lengthening as the fruit matures. When mature in mid summer, the female catkins comprise numerous small (4 mm) capsules each containing numerous minute seeds embedded in white down which aids wind dispersal.[1][2][3]

Ecology

White Willows are fast-growing, but relatively short-lived, being susceptible to several diseases, including watermark disease caused by the bacterium Brenneria salicis (named because of the characteristic 'watermark' staining in the wood; syn. Erwinia salicis) and willow anthracnose, caused by the fungus Marssonina salicicola. These diseases can be a serious problem on trees grown for timber or ornament.

It readily forms natural hybrids with Crack Willow Salix fragilis, the hybrid being named Salix × rubens Schrank.[1]

Uses

The wood is tough, strong, and light in weight, but has minimal resistance to decay. The stems (withies) from coppiced and pollarded plants are used for basket-making. Charcoal made from the wood was important for gunpowder manufacture. The bark was used in the past for tanning leather.[1][2]

Cultivars and hybrids

A number of cultivars and hybrids have been selected for forestry and horticultural use:[1][2]

* Salix alba 'Caerulea' (Cricket-bat Willow; syn. Salix alba var. caerulea (Sm.) Sm.; Salix caerulea Sm.) is grown as a specialist timber crop in Britain, mainly for the production of cricket bats, and for other uses where a tough, lightweight wood that does not splinter easily, is required. It is distinguished mainly by its growth form, very fast growing with a single straight stem, and also by its slightly larger leaves (10–11 cm long, 1.5–2 cm wide) with a more blue-green colour. Its origin is unknown; it may be a hybrid between White Willow and Crack Willow, but this is not confirmed.[1]
* Salix alba 'Vitellina' (Golden Willow; syn. Salix alba var. vitellina (L.) Stokes) is a cultivar grown in gardens for its shoots, which are golden yellow for 1–2 years before turning brown. It is particularly decorative in winter; the best effect is achieved by coppicing it every 2–3 years to stimulate the production of longer young shoots with better colour. Other similar cultivars include 'Britzensis', 'Cardinal', and 'Chermesina', selected for even brighter orange-red shoots.
* Salix alba 'Sericea' (Silver Willow) is a cultivar where the white hairs on the leaves are particularly dense, giving it more strongly silvery-white foliage.
* Salix alba 'Vitellina-Tristis' (Golden Weeping Willow, synonym 'Tristis') is a weeping cultivar with yellow branches that become reddish-orange in winter. It is now rare in cultivation and has been largely replaced by Salix Sepulcralis Group 'Chrysocoma'. It is however still the best choice in very cold parts of the world like Canada, the Northern U.S.A. and Russia.

* The Golden Hybrid Weeping Willow (Salix Sepulcralis Group 'Chrysocoma') is a hybrid between White Willow and Peking Willow Salix babylonica.


Medicinal uses
Salix alba tincture

Hippocrates wrote in the 5th century BC about a bitter powder extracted from willow bark that could ease aches and pains and reduce fevers. This remedy is also mentioned in texts from ancient Egypt, Sumer, and Assyria. The Reverend Edmund Stone, a vicar from Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, England, noted in 1763 that willow bark was effective in reducing a fever.[4] The bark is often macerated in ethanol to produce a tincture.

The active extract of the bark, called salicin, after the Latin name Salix, was isolated to its crystalline form in 1828 by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist, and Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist, who then succeeded in separating out the acid in its pure state. Salicylic acid, like aspirin, is a chemical derivative of salicin.

References


1. ^ a b c d e f Meikle, R. D. (1984). Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook No. 4. ISBN 0-901158-07-0.
2. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
3. ^ Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
4. ^ Stone, E. (1763). An Account of the Success of the Bark of the Willow in the Cure of Agues. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 53.

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