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Cranberry bog

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Vaccinioideae
Tribus: Vaccinieae
Genus: Vaccinium
Sectio: V. sect. Oxycoccus
Species: Vaccinium oxycoccos
Name

Vaccinium oxycoccos L., 1753
Synonyms

Oxycoca vulgaris Raf.
Oxycoccus europaeus Nutt.
Oxycoccus gigas Hagerup
Oxycoccus hagerupii Á.Löve & D.Löve
Oxycoccus intermedius (A.Gray) Rydb.
Oxycoccus ovalifolius (Michx.) A.E.Porsild
Oxycoccus oxycoccus (L.) Mac Millan
Oxycoccus palustris Pers.
Oxycoccus palustris subsp. gigas (Hagerup) Soo
Oxycoccus palustris var. intermedius (A.Gray) Howell
Oxycoccus palustris var. macrophyllus W.Gugnacka-Fiedor
Oxycoccus palustris var. melanocarpus Stepanov
Oxycoccus palustris subsp. microphylla (Lange) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Oxycoccus palustris f. microphylla Lange
Oxycoccus palustris var. microphyllum (Lange) Rouss. & Raymond
Oxycoccus palustris var. ovalifolius (Michx.) F.Seym.
Oxycoccus palustris var. pusillus Dunal
Oxycoccus palustris var. vulgaris Blytt
Oxycoccus pusillus (Dunal) Nakai
Oxycoccus quadripetalus Gilib.
Oxycoccus quadripetalus var. microphyllus (Lange) A.E.Porsild
Oxycoccus quadripetalus subsp. vulgaris (Blytt) Braun-Blanq.
Oxycoccus vulgaris Hill
Schollera europaea (Pers.) Steud.
Schollera oxycoccos (L.) Roth
Schollera paludosa Baumg.
Schollera palustris (Pers.) Steud.
Vaccinium oxycoccos var. intermedium A.Gray
Vaccinium oxycoccos subsp. microphyllum (Lange) J.Feilberg
Vaccinium oxycoccos var. microphyllum (Lange) Rouss. & Raymond
Vaccinium oxycoccos var. ovalifolium Michx.
Vaccinium oxycoccos subsp. vulgare Blytt
Vaccinium palustre Salisb.
Vaccinium uliginosum f. depressum Nakai ex Uyeki
Vaccinium uliginosum f. ellipticum Nakai ex Uyeki

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Eurasia
Austria, Belgium, England, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, N-, W-, C- & E-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Sweden, Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia), Kazakhstan, Russian Far East (incl. Kuril Isl.), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu), China (Heilongjiang, S-Jilin), North Korea
Continental: Northern America
Alaska, USA (Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia), Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Greenland, St. Pierre et Miquelon

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 351. Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2020. Vaccinium oxycoccos. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 29. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Vaccinium oxycoccos in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 29. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Vaccinium oxycoccos. Published online. Accessed: May 29 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Vaccinium oxycoccos. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 29.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Vaccinium oxycoccos in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
العربية: عنب المناقع
беларуская: Журавіны звычайныя
čeština: klikva bahenní
Cymraeg: llygaeren
dansk: Almindelig Tranebær
Deutsch: Gewöhnliche Moosbeere
dolnoserbski: Wšedna žorawina
English: small cranberry, common cranberry, northern cranberry
español: arándano agrio, arándano palustre
eesti: Harilik jõhvikas
فارسی: کرنبری باتلاقی
suomi: Isokarpalo
hornjoserbsce: Wšědna tymjenka
magyar: tőzegáfonya
日本語: ツルコケモモ
перем коми: Туримоль
lietuvių: Paprastoji spanguolė
norsk bokmål: Vanlig tranebær
Nederlands: Kleine veenbes
polski: źurawina błotna
davvisámegiella: Jeaggemuorji
slovenčina: kľukva močiarna
Seeltersk: Moasbäie
svenska: Tranbär
українська: Журавлина болотна
中文: 红莓苔子

Vaccinium oxycoccos is a species of flowering plant in the heath family. It is known as small cranberry, bog cranberry, swamp cranberry,[3] or, particularly in Britain, just cranberry.[4] It is widespread throughout the cool temperate northern hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia and northern North America.[3]

Description

This cranberry is a small, prostrate shrub with vine-like stems that root at the nodes. The leaves are leathery and lance-shaped, up to 1 cm (0.39 in) long.[3] Flowers arise on nodding stalks a few centimeters tall. The corolla is white or pink and flexed backward away from the center of the flower. The fruit is a red berry which has spots when young. It measures up to 1.2 cm (0.47 in) wide.[2][5] The plant forms associations with mycorrhizae. It mainly reproduces vegetatively.[3]
Distribution and habitat

Vaccinium oxycoccos is a widespread and common species occurring broadly across cooler climates in the temperate northern hemisphere.[3][6][7][8][9] It is an indicator of moist to wet soils which are low in nitrogen and have a high water table. It is an indicator of coniferous swamps. It grows in bogs and fens in moist forest habitat. It grows on peat which may be saturated most of the time. The soil in bogs is acidic and low in nutrients. The plant's mycorrhizae help it obtain nutrients in this situation. Fens have somewhat less acidic soil, which is also higher in nutrients. The plant can often be found growing on hummocks of Sphagnum mosses.
Ecology

In North America, other species found in this forest understory habitat include leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), rhodora (Rhododendron canadense), glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), sundew (Drosera spp.), cottonsedge (Eriophorum virginatum and E. angustifolium), and species of sedge and lichen. The plant easily colonizes bog habitat that has recently burned. It survives fire with its underground rhizomes.[2][3]
Uses

The berries of Vaccinium oxycoccos are edible[10] and have been used both as a medicine and as a food by various Native American communities. Some Iñupiat cook the cranberry with fish eggs and blubber.[11][12]
References

"Vaccinium oxycoccos". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
Fang, Ruizheng; Steven, Peter F. "Vaccinium oxycoccus". Flora of China. 14 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Matthews, Robin F. (1992). "Vaccinium oxycoccos". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
Stace, Clive (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5.
Vander Kloet, Sam P. (2009). "Vaccinium oxycoccos". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 8. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
"Vaccinium oxycoccos". NatureServe.
"Vaccinium oxycoccos". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
"Vaccinium oxycoccos L." Tela Botanica (in French). Photos, description, French distribution map.
"Vaccinium oxycoccos L." Schede di botanica (in Italian). Photos and European distribution map.
Benoliel, Doug (2011). Northwest Foraging: The Classic Guide to Edible Plants of the Pacific Northwest (Rev. and updated ed.). Seattle, WA: Skipstone. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-59485-366-1. OCLC 668195076.
Jones, Anore (1983). "Nauriat niginaqtuat (Plants that we eat)". Maniilaq Association Traditional Nutrition Program. Kotzebue, Alaska: 104. According to the brief annotation in Anonymous (2003).
Anonymous (2003). "Search results for Vaccinium oxycoccos". Native American Ethnobotany. Dearborn, MI: University of Michigan-Dearborn. Retrieved 15 June 2012.

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