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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Cranichideae
Subtribus: Goodyerinae
Genus: Vrydagzynea
Overview of species (42)

V. albida – V. albostriata – V. angustisepala – V. argentistriata – V. argyrotaenia – V. beccarii – V. bicostata – V. bractescens – V. brassii – V. buruensis – V. celebica – V. deliana – V. elata – V. elongata – V. endertii – V. formosana – V. gracilis – V. grandis – V. guppyi – V. kerintjiensis – V. lancifolia – V. micronesiaca – V. neohibernica – V. novaguineensis – V. nuda – V. obliqua – V. paludosa – V. pauciflora – V. purpurea – V. salomonensis – V. samoana – V. schumanniana – V. semicordata – V. sessilifolia – V. tilungensis – V. triangularis – V. tristriata – V. truncicola – V. uncinata – V. vitiensis – V. vrydagzynoides – V. weberi – V. weberi

Vrydagzynea Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 71 (1858)

Type species: Vrydagzynea albida (Blume)Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 71 (1858)

Native distribution areas:

China Southeast, Hainan.
Eastern Asia
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh.
Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.
Borneo, Jawa, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands.
Southwestern Pacific
Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Blume, C.L. 1858. Collection des Orchidées 71, pl. 17–20.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2003. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 3: Orchidoideae (Part two); page 145 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850711-9


'eFloras 2009. Vrydagzynea in Flora of China vol. 25 Orchidaceae --> pdf Vrydagzynea
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2020. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Vrydagzynea. Accessed: 2020 Jul 30.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Vrydagzynea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Jul 30. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Vrydagzynea in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Jul 30. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Vrydagzynea. Published online. Accessed: 30 Jul 2020.
The Plant List 2013. Vrydagzynea in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Jul 30. 2020. Vrydagzynea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 30 Jul 2020.

Vernacular names

English: Tonsil orchids
中文: 二尾兰属

Vrydagzynea, commonly called tonsil orchids,[2] is a genus of orchids in the tribe Cranichideae. About forty five species of Vrydagzynea have been formally described. They are native to India, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, Malesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. A single species in Australia is possibly extinct. They have thinly textured, stalked leaves and small, dull-coloured resupinate flowers with the dorsal sepal and petals overlapping to form a hood over the column.


Orchids in the genus Vrydagzynea are terrestrial, perennial, deciduous, sympodial herbs with a fleshy, creeping, above-ground rhizome anchored by wiry roots. The leaves are thinly textured and stalked, arranged in a rosette at the base of the flowering stem or scattered along it. Small, resupinate dull-coloured flowers are crowded along the short flowering stem which usually has protruding bracts. The dorsal sepal and petals overlap, forming a hood over the column. The labellum has a downward pointing spur and two stalked glands that resemble tonsils or testicles. Orchids in this genus are distinguished from those in other similar genera by the labellum glands, labellum spur and by having petals which are shorter than the sepals.[2][3][4][5][6]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Vrydagzynea was first formally described in 1858 by Carl Ludwig Blume and the description was published in his book Collection des Orchidées les plus remarquables de l'archipel Indien et du Japon.[1][7] The name Vrydagzynea honours the Dutch pharmacologist Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen, a contemporary of Blume.[6]
List of species

The following is a list of species of Vrydagzynea recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at October 2020:[1]

Vrydagzynea albida (Blume) Blume - Bangladesh to New Guinea, Indochina,, Indonesia, Philippines, Nicobar Islands
Vrydagzynea albostriata Schltr. in K.M.Schumann & C.A.G.Lauterbach - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea angustisepala J.J.Sm. - Borneo
Vrydagzynea argentistriata Carr - Sabah
Vrydagzynea argyrotaenia Schltr. in K.M.Schumann & C.A.G.Lauterbach - New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Vrydagzynea beccarii Schltr. - Sarawak
Vrydagzynea bicostata Carr - Sabah
Vrydagzynea bractescens Ridl. - Sumatra, Borneo
Vrydagzynea brassii Ormerod - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea buruensis J.J.Sm. - Sulawesi, Maluku
Vrydagzynea celebica Schltr. - Sulawesi
Vrydagzynea deliana J.J.Sm. - Sumatra
Vrydagzynea densa Schltr. - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea elata Schltr. - Sabah, Sarawak
Vrydagzynea elongata Blume - New Guinea, Maluku and Queensland
Vrydagzynea endertii J.J.Sm. - Borneo
Vrydagzynea formosana Hayata - Assam, China, Vietnam, Japan
Vrydagzynea gracilis Blume - Java, Sumatra
Vrydagzynea grandis Ames & C.Schweinf. in O.Ames - Sabah
Vrydagzynea guppyi Schltr. - Solomon Islands
Vrydagzynea kerintjiensis J.J.Sm - Sumatra
Vrydagzynea lancifolia Ridl. - Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo
Vrydagzynea micronesiaca Schltr. - Pohnpei
Vrydagzynea neohibernica Schltr. - Bismarck Archipelago
Vrydagzynea novaguineensis J.J.Sm. - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea nuda Blume - Hainan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Borneo, Java
Vrydagzynea obliqua Schltr. - Sulawesi
Vrydagzynea paludosa J.J.Sm. - Queensland, New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Vrydagzynea pauciflora J.J.Sm. - Borneo
Vrydagzynea purpurea Blume - Java
Vrydagzynea salomonensis Schltr. in K.M.Schumann & C.A.G.Lauterbach - Vanuatu, Solomon Islands
Vrydagzynea samoana Schltr - Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa
Vrydagzynea schumanniana Kraenzl. in K.M.Schumann & C.A.G.Lauterbach - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea semicordata J.J.Sm. - Borneo
Vrydagzynea sessilifolia Ormerod - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea tilungensis J.J.Sm. - Borneo
Vrydagzynea triangularis Ormerod & J.J.Wood - Sabah
Vrydagzynea tristriata Ridl. - Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo
Vrydagzynea truncicola Schltr. - New Guinea
Vrydagzynea uncinata Blume - Java
Vrydagzynea vitiensis Rchb.f - Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
Vrydagzynea vrydagzynoides (Ames) Ormerod - Leyte
Vrydagzynea weberi Ames - Philippines

See also

List of Orchidaceae genera


"Vrydagzynea". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 350. ISBN 1877069124.
D.L.Jones; T.Hopley; S.M.Duffy (2010). "Vrydagzynea". Australian Tropical Rainforest Orchids. Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
"Vrydagzynea". Flora of China. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
Alec M. Pridgeon; Phillip J. Cribb; Mark W. Chase; Finn N. Rasmussen, eds. (2003). Genera orchidacearum (Volume 3). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 145–150. ISBN 0198507119.
"Vrydagzynea". The Orders and Families of Monocots. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
"Vrydagzynea". APNI. Retrieved 4 September 2018.

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