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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Subclassis: Acari
Superordo: Parasitiformes
Subordo: Holothyrida
Familiae (3): Allothyridae – Holothyridae – Neothyridae

Holothryida Thon, 1909
Additional references

Beaulieu, F. et al. 2011. Superorder Parasitiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 123–128. ISBN 978-1-86977-849-1 (paperback) ISBN 978-1-86977-850-7 (online edition) PDF
Lehtinen, P.T. 1995. Revision of the Old World Holothyridae (Arachnida: Anactinotrichida: Holothyrina). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9(4): 767–826. DOI: 10.1071/IT9950767

The Holothyrida are a small order of mites in the superorder Parasitiformes. No fossils are known. With body lengths of more than 2 mm (3⁄32 in) they are relatively large mites, with a heavily sclerotized body. They mainly feed on the body fluids of dead arthropods. This was possibly the common way of feeding for ticks before they adapted for feeding on the blood of live animals.[1]

Although only 25 species are currently described, many others have been collected.

The order has a distribution largely confined to former Gondwanan landmasses. They are likely the sister group to Ixodida (ticks).[2]


Allothyridae van der Hammen, 1972 — Australia

Allothyrus van der Hammen, 1961

Allothyrus australasiae (Womersley, 1935)
Allothyrus constrictus (Domrow, 1955)

Australothyrus van der Hammen, 1983

Australothyrus ocellatus van der Hammen, 1983


Holothyridae Thorell, 1882 Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean islands, New Guinea, New Caledonia

Sternothyrus Lehtinen, 1995

Sternothyrus braueri (Thon, 1905) — Seychelles

Lindothyrus Lehtinen, 1995

Lindothyrus elongatus Lehtinen, 1995 — Lord Howe Island
Lindothyrus rubellus Lehtinen, 1995 — New Caledonia

Indothyrus Lehtinen, 1995

Indothyrus greeni Lehtinen, 1995 — Sri Lanka

Haplothyrus Lehtinen, 1995

Haplothyrus expolitissimus (Berlese, 1924) — New Caledonia
Haplothyrus hyatti Lehtinen, 1995 — unknown locality

Holothyrus Gervais, 1842 — Mauritius

Holothyrus coccinella Gervais, 1842
Holothyrus legendrei Hammen, 1983

Hammenius Lehtinen, 1981

Hammenius armatus (Canestrini, 1897) — Tamara Island (Aitape): New Guinea
Hammenius berlesei (Lehtinen, 1995) — New Guinea
Hammenius braueri (Thon, 1906)
Hammenius fujuge Lehtinen, 1981 — New Guinea (Central District, Oro Province)
Hammenius grandjeani (Hammen, 1961) — Mount Bosavi: New Guinea
Hammenius holthuisi van der Hammen, 1983
Hammenius ingii Lehtinen, 1981 — New Guinea
Hammenius insularis Lehtinen, 1995 — Louisiade Archipelago: New Guinea
Hammenius longipes (Thorell, 1882) — Fly River, New Guinea (?)
Hammenius mendi (Lehtinen, 1995) — Strickland River: New Guinea
Hammenius montanus Hammen, 1983 — Irian Jaya
Hammenius niger (Thon, 1906)


Neothyridae Lehtinen, 1981 Caribbean, northern South America

Diplothyrus Lehtinen, 1999

Diplothyrus schubarti Lehtinen, 1999

Neothyrus Lehtinen, 1981

Neothyrus ana Lehtinen, 1981


Walter & Proctor 1998

Dobson & Barker 1999


Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog: Holothyrida
Bruce Halliday: Order Holothyrida
Lehtinen, Pekka T. (1995): Revision of the old world Holothyridae (Arachnida : Anactinotrichida : Holothyrina). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9(4): 767-826. doi:10.1071/IT9950767
Walter, D. E. & Proctor, H. C. (1998): Feeding behaviour and phylogeny: observations on early derivative Acari. Exp. Appl. Acarol 22: 39-50.
Dobson, S. J. & Barker, S. C. (1999): Phylogeny of the hard ticks (Ixodidae) inferred from 18S rRNA indicates that the genus Aponomma is paraphyletic. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol 11: 288-295 PMID 10191073


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