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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Hyperoliidae
Genus: Acanthixalus
Species: Acanthixalus spinosus

Acanthixalus spinosus (Buchholz & Peters in Peters, 1875)

Type locality: "Cameruns" (= Cameroon).

Syntypes: ZMB 8359 (4 specimens).

Hyperolius spinosus Buchholz & Peters in Peters, 1875
Megalixalus spinosus — Boulenger, 1882
Megalixalus (Acanthixalus) spinosus — Laurent, 1944
Acanthixalus spinosus — Laurent, 1950


Buchholz and Peters in Peters, 1875, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1875: 208.
Laurent, 1950, Explor. Parc Natl. Albert, Miss. G.F. de Witte (1933-1935), 64: 14.
Frost, D.R. 2021. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. DOI: 10.5531/db.vz.0001 Acanthixalus spinosus . Accessed on 30 May 2008.
2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN: Acanthixalus spinosus (Least Concern) Downloaded on 30 May 2008.

Vernacular names
English: Cameroon Wart Frog
Acanthixalus spinosus, commonly known as the African wart frog,[2] is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae, the sedge and bush frogs. It is native to Africa, where it can be found from south-eastern Nigeria to Gabon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[1][2][3]


Males measure 30–38 mm (1.2–1.5 in) and females 32–36 mm (1.3–1.4 in) in snout–vent length.[4] The dorsum is warty, black or brownish to olive in color, and bears an hourglass pattern consisting of very irregular transverse bands on dorsum and limbs. Males have no vocal sac or vocal sac openings and are believed to be mute. Males also have strong spines on the tarsus, and they have larger digital discs than females.[3]

The tadpoles grow to 60 mm (2.4 in) in total length. Newly metamorphosed juveniles are brightly colored: they are dorsally orange, with the top of the head and bars across the middle of the back and in the lumbar region deep maroon.[3]
Habitat and conservation

This frog lives in lowland rainforest. It is mostly aquatic, living in water-filled holes in trees.[1][4] Apparently, they leave the tree holes only during night to forage.[4] The eggs are deposited a few centimeters above the water surface. Upon hatching, the tadpoles fall into the water. The development takes approximately three months. They are detritivores.[3]

Because this species depends on large trees with holes that collect rainwater, it is vulnerable to ongoing forest loss.[1]
Ecological interactions

This frog is host to the commensal protists Opalina proteus and Cepedea couillardi.[5]

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2013). "Acanthixalus spinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T56055A18369717. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T56055A18369717.en. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Acanthixalus spinosus (Buchholz and Peters, 1875)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
"Acanthixalus spinosus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2001. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Kosuch, Joachim; Veith, Michael & Ernst, Raffael (2003). "First record of the genus Acanthixalus Laurent, 1944 from the upper Guinean rain forest, West Africa, with the description of a new species". Journal of Herpetology. 37 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1670/0022-1511(2003)037[0043:FROTGA]2.0.CO;2.
Affa'a, Félix-Marie; Mignot, Jean-Pierre & Amiet, Jean-Louis (1996). "Morphological and cytological observations on two opalinid endocommensals of Acanthixalus spinosus (Amphibia, Anura)". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 74 (8): 1573–1584. doi:10.1139/z96-171.

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