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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Bufonidae
Genus: Dendrophryniscus
Species (16): D. berthalutzae – D. brevipollicatus – D. carvalhoi – D. davori – D. haddadi – D. imitator – D. izecksohni – D. jureia – D. krausae – D. lauroi – D. leucomystax – D. oreites – D. organensis – D. proboscideus – D. skuki – D. stawiarskyi

Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada, 1871: 65

Type species: Melanophryniscus brevipollicatus Jiménez de la Espada, 1871, by monotypy.
Primary references

Jiménez de la Espada, M. 1870. Fauna neotropicalis species quaedam nondum cognitae. Jornal de Sciências, Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes. Lisbõa 3: 57–65.

Additional references

Carvalho-e-Silva, A.M.P.T. de et al. 2010. A new species of Dendrophryniscus Jiménez–de–la–Espada from the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Zootaxa 2632: 46–52. Preview
Recoder, R.S. et al. 2010. A new species of Dendrophryniscus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Atlantic Rainforest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 2642: 36–44. Preview
Fouquet, A., Recoder, R., Teixeira Jr., M., Cassimiro, J., Amaro, R.C., Camacho, A., Damasceno, R., Carnaval, A.C., Moritz, C. & Rodrigues, M.T. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62(3): 826–838. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.023 Reference page.
Cruz, C.A.G., Caramaschi, U., Fusinatto, L.A. & Brasileiro, C.A. 2019. Taxonomic review of Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, with revalidation of D. imitator (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920) and D. lauroi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, and description of four new related species (Anura, Bufonidae). Zootaxa 4648(1): 27–62. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4648.1.2. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Tree Toads

Dendrophryniscus is a genus of true toads in the family Bufonidae,[1][2] sometimes known as tree toads. They are endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.[1]


Until 2012, the genus Dendrophryniscus included the species now separated to the genus Amazophrynella. This was based on molecular genetic evidence that indicated deep divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, the latter retaining the name Dendrophryniscus whereas the former was described as a new genus Amazonella,[3] later amended to Amazophrynella because of homonymy.

The species of Dendrophryniscus are small to medium-sized toads measuring 15–47 mm (0.59–1.85 in) in snout–vent length. Their body form resembles those of the genus Atelopus. The hind limbs are well developed. The parotoid glands are absent, as are external tympana. The skin is uniformly granulose to warty. Dorsal coloration is cryptic.[3]

With the exception of Dendrophryniscus leucomystax, species of the genus Dendrophryniscus breed in phytotelmata. In contrast, species of the genus Amazophrynella are pond breeders, which is presumably an ancestral trait in bufonids.[3]

The following species are recognized in the genus Dendrophryniscus:[1]

Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae Izecksohn, 1994
Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus Jiménez de la Espada, 1870
Dendrophryniscus carvalhoi Izecksohn, 1994
Dendrophryniscus davori Cruz, Caramaschi, Fusinatto, and Brasileiro, 2019
Dendrophryniscus haddadi Cruz, Caramaschi, Fusinatto, and Brasileiro, 2019
Dendrophryniscus imitator (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920)
Dendrophryniscus izecksohni Cruz, Caramaschi, Fusinatto, and Brasileiro, 2019
Dendrophryniscus jureia Cruz, Caramaschi, Fusinatto, and Brasileiro, 2019
Dendrophryniscus krausae Cruz and Fusinatto, 2008
Dendrophryniscus lauroi (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926)
Dendrophryniscus leucomystax Izecksohn, 1968
Dendrophryniscus oreites Recoder, Teixeira, Cassimiro, Camacho, and Rodrigues, 2010
Dendrophryniscus organensis Carvalho-e-Silva, Mongin, Izecksohn, and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2010
Dendrophryniscus proboscideus (Boulenger, 1882)
Dendrophryniscus skuki (Caramaschi, 2012)
Dendrophryniscus stawiarskyi Izecksohn, 1994


Frost, Darrel R. (2020). "Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada, 1870". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.vz.0001. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig & Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut (2012). "Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (3): 826–838. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.023. PMID 22166838.

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