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Actitis hypoleucos

Actitis hypoleucos (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Scolopacidae
Genus: Actitis
Species: Actitis hypoleucos

Actitis hypoleucos (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tringa hypoleucos (protonym)


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 149.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Gewone Ruiter
العربية: طيطوي شائع
asturianu: Andarríu Mazaricu
azərbaycanca: Adi sahildəyişən
башҡортса: Тебет
беларуская: Кулік-перавозчык
български: Късокрил кюкавец
भोजपुरी: सुड़सुड़िया
বাংলা: পাতি বাটান
brezhoneg: Bistroll kof gwenn
català: Xivitona comuna
нохчийн: ЦӀога лесто хин олхазар
čeština: Pisík obecný
Cymraeg: Pibydd y Dorlan
dansk: Mudderklire
Deutsch: Flussuferläufer
Ελληνικά: Μικρονεραλλίδα
English: Common Sandpiper
Esperanto: Blankventra tringo
español: Andarríos chico
eesti: Vihitaja
euskara: Kuliska txiki
فارسی: یلوه معمولی
suomi: Rantasipi
føroyskt: Fjørustelkur
Nordfriisk: Holtskuch
français: Chevalier guignette
Gaeilge: Gobadán Coiteann
Gàidhlig: Luatharan
galego: Bilurico bailón
Gaelg: Looyran
עברית: ביצנית לבנת בטן
हिन्दी: Kottan
hrvatski: Mala prutka
magyar: Billegetőcankó
հայերեն: Սպիտակավիզ կտցար
Bahasa Indonesia: Trinil pantai
íslenska: Lindastelkur
italiano: Piro piro piccolo
日本語: イソシギ
ქართული: მებორნე
қазақша: Мамырқұс
한국어: 깝짝도요
коми: Истан
Lëtzebuergesch: Uferleefer
lietuvių: Krantinis tilvikas
latviešu: Upes tilbīte
македонски: Речна тринга
മലയാളം: നീർക്കാട
монгол: Эгэл хайргын хөгчүү - ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠭᠣ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠡᠴᠦ
Bahasa Melayu: Burung Kedidi Pasir
Malti: Beggazzina tar-Rokka
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရွှံ့နွံရေညှောင့်ငှက်
नेपाली: चञ्चले सुड्सुडिया
Nederlands: Oeverloper
norsk nynorsk: Strandsnipe
norsk: Strandsnipe
Diné bizaad: Tó wónaanídę́ę́ʼ tábąąsdísí áłtsʼíísí
polski: Brodziec piskliwy
پنجابی: ریتل چہا
português: Maçarico-das-rochas
rumantsch: Privaun cumin
română: Fluierar de munte
русский: Перевозчик
саха тыла: Уу ойууна
davvisámegiella: Gáddebuvvet
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mala prutka
slovenčina: Kalužiak malý
slovenščina: Mali martinec
shqip: Qyrylyku i vogël
српски / srpski: Polojka - Полојка
Sesotho: Koe-koe-lemao
svenska: Drillsnäppa
Kiswahili: Kiulimazi
தமிழ்: சாதா உள்ளான்
ไทย: นกเด้าดิน
Türkçe: Dere düdükçünü
Xitsonga: N'wantshekutsheku
українська: Набережник
Tiếng Việt: Choắt nhỏ
isiXhosa: Uthuthula
中文: 矶鹬

The common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) is a small Palearctic wader. This bird and its American sister species, the spotted sandpiper (A. macularia), make up the genus Actitis. They are parapatric and replace each other geographically; stray birds of either species may settle down with breeders of the other and hybridize. Hybridization has also been reported between the common sandpiper and the green sandpiper, a basal species of the closely related shank genus Tringa.


The common sandpiper was one of the many bird species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae, where it was given the binomial name of Tringa hypoleucos.[2] The current scientific name is from Ancient Greek. Actitis is from aktites, "coast-dweller" derived from akte, "coast", and hypoleucos is from hupo, "beneath", and leukos "white".[3]

The adult is 18–20 cm (7.1–7.9 in) long with a 32–35 cm (13–14 in) wingspan. It has greyish-brown upperparts, white underparts, short dark-yellowish legs and feet, and a bill with a pale base and dark tip. In winter plumage, they are duller and have more conspicuous barring on the wings, though this is still only visible at close range. Juveniles are more heavily barred above and have buff edges to the wing feathers.[4]

This species is very similar to the slightly larger spotted sandpiper (A. macularia) in non-breeding plumage. But its darker legs and feet and the crisper wing pattern (visible in flight) tend to give it away, and of course they are only rarely found in the same location.[4]

It is a gregarious bird and is seen in large flocks, and has the distinctive stiff-winged flight, low over the water, of Actitis waders. The common sandpiper breeds across most of temperate and subtropical Europe and Asia, and migrates to Africa, southern Asia and Australia in winter. The eastern edge of its migration route passes by Palau in Micronesia, where hundreds of birds may gather for a stop-over. They depart the Palau region for their breeding quarters around the last week of April to the first week of May.[4][5]
Wintering bird foraging matakakoni-style, Puri (Odisha, India)
Egg of Actitis hypoleucos - MHNT

The common sandpiper forages by sight on the ground or in shallow water, picking up small food items such as insects, crustaceans and other invertebrates; it may even catch insects in flight. In the Nukumanu language of the Nukumanu Islands (Papua New Guinea), this species is usually called tiritavoi. Another Nukumanu name for it, matakakoni, exists, but this is considered somewhat taboo and not used when children and women are around. The reason for this is that matakakoni means "bird that walks a little, then copulates", in reference to the pumping tail and thrusting head movements the Actitis species characteristically perform during foraging.[4][6]

It nests on the ground near freshwater. When threatened, the young may cling to their parent's body to be flown away to safety.[4][7]

The common sandpiper is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

It is widespread and common, and therefore classified as a species of least concern by the IUCN but is a vulnerable species in some states of Australia.[1]

BirdLife International (2012). "Actitis hypoleucos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T22693264A38824217. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22693264A38824217.en.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis (in Latin). Vol. I (10th revised ed.). Holmiae: (Laurentii Salvii). p. 149 – via The Internet Archive.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 31, 199. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1986). Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-60237-8.
VanderWerf, Eric A.; Wiles, Gary J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Knecht, Melia (2006). "Observations of migrants and other birds in Palau, April–May 2005, including the first Micronesian record of a Richard's Pipit" (PDF). Micronesica. 39 (1): 11–29.
Hadden, Don W. (2004). "Birds of the northern atolls of the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea" (PDF). Notornis. 51 (2): 91–102.
Mann, Clive F. (1991). "Sunda Frogmouth Batrachostomus cornutus carrying its young" (PDF). Forktail. 6: 77–78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-20.

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