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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Certhioidea

Familia: Certhiidae
Genera: CerthiaSalpornis

Certhiidae Leach, 1820

Certhiadae (protonym)


Leach, W.E. 1820. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum: Eleventh Room. British Museum. London. 17th edition: 65–70. (Although the name of the author is not specified in the document, Leach was the Keeper of Zoology at the time). BHL DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.144385 Reference page. First citation p.68: Certhiadae BHL

Vernacular names
беларуская: Пішчухавыя
català: Cèrtid
čeština: Šoupálkovití
чӑвашла: Шăван кайăк йышшисем
Deutsch: Baumläufer
English: Treecreeper
Esperanto: Certiedoj
فارسی: دارخزک
suomi: Puukiipijät
Gaeilge: Snag
galego: Gabeador
hrvatski: Puzavci
magyar: Fakúszfélék
Ido: Certio
日本語: キバシリ科
ქართული: მგლინავასებრნი
한국어: 나무발발이과
lietuvių: Liputiniai
македонски: Ползачки
Nederlands: Echte boomkruipers
norsk nynorsk: Trekryparar
polski: Pełzaczowate
русский: Пищуховые
саха тыла: Токур тумустуҥулар кэргэннэрэ
slovenščina: Drevesni plezalčki
svenska: Trädkrypare
Kiswahili: Tambarazi
Türkçe: Tırmaşık kuşugiller
Tiếng Việt: Họ Đuôi cứng
中文: 旋木雀科

The treecreepers are a family, Certhiidae, of small passerine birds, widespread in wooded regions of the Northern Hemisphere and sub-Saharan Africa. The family contains ten species in two genera, Certhia and Salpornis. Their plumage is dull-coloured, and as their name implies, they climb over the surface of trees in search of food.

Taxonomy and systematics

The family consists of two subfamilies, each with one genus. Their distinctive anatomical and behavioural characteristics are discussed in their respective articles.

Subfamily Certhiinae, genus Certhia, is the typical treecreepers, with seven species found in Europe and Asia, and one, the brown creeper, in North America.
Subfamily Salpornithinae, genus Salpornis, contains only the Indian spotted creeper and African spotted creeper.

Some taxonomists place the nuthatches and treecreepers in a larger grouping with the wrens and gnatcatchers. This superfamily, the Certhioidea, was based on phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, and was created to cover a clade of four families removed from a larger grouping of passerine birds, the Sylvioidea.[1] The fossil record for this group appears to be restricted to a foot bone of an early Miocene bird from Bavaria which has been identified as an extinct representative of the climbing Certhioidea, a clade comprising the treecreepers, wallcreeper and nuthatches. It has been described as Certhiops rummeli.[2]


Tichodromidae: wallcreeper

Sittidae: nuthatches

Certhiidae: treecreepers

Polioptilidae: gnatcatchers

Troglodytidae: wrens

Relatives of the treecreepers in the superfamily Certhioidea.[3]

The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek kerthios, a small tree-dwelling bird described by Aristotle and others.[4]

There are two other small bird families with treecreeper or creeper in their name, which are not closely related:

the Australian treecreepers (Climacteridae)
the Philippine creepers (Rhabdornithidae)

The wallcreeper was originally described in the family Certhiidae but is now considered as more closely related to the nuthatches. The woodcreepers (subfamily Dendrocolaptinae) also have a similar name.
Species in taxonomic order

Genus Certhia
Eurasian treecreeper or common treecreeper, Certhia familiaris
Hodgson's treecreeper, Certhia hodgsoni
Brown creeper, Certhia americana
Short-toed treecreeper, Certhia brachydactyla
Bar-tailed treecreeper or Himalayan treecreeper, Certhia himalayana
Sichuan treecreeper, Certhia tianquanensis
Rusty-flanked treecreeper or Nepal treecreeper, Certhia nipalensis
Sikkim treecreeper or brown-throated treecreeper, Certhia discolor
Hume's treecreeper, Certhia manipurensis
Genus Salpornis
Indian spotted creeper, Salpornis spilonotus
African spotted creeper, Salpornis salvadori

An extinct treecreeper, Certhia rummeli, was described from a fossilized right tarsometatarsus found in karstic fissure fillings in Petersbuch, Bavaria by German paleornithologist Albrecht Manegold. This specimen implies the branching of Certhioidea occurred 20 MYA, and represents the oldest fossil passerine assignable to an extant subordinated clade of oscines in the Northern Hemisphere.[5]

Treecreepers measure from 12 to 18 centimetres in length. Their bills are gently down-curved and rather long, used for probing bark for insects and spiders. They often climb up tree trunks in a helical path, hopping with their feet together; their toes are long and tipped with strongly curved claws for gripping. The longer tails of the Certhia treecreepers are stiffened to use as a prop while climbing, but those of the spotted creeper are shorter and not stiffened. Their songs and calls are thin and high-pitched.[6]
Distribution and habitat

Most species of treecreeper occur in the Palearctic and Indomalayan realms, from Western Europe to Japan and India. One species occurs in North America from Alaska to Nicaragua and another has a discontinuous distribution in sub-Saharan Africa and India. All species of treecreeper are found in forest and woodland habitats. The more northerly species are partly migratory, and those found in warmer climates are thought to be resident, although information is lacking for many species.[7]
Behaviour and ecology

Treecreepers are generally unobtrusive and are often indifferent to humans. They occur as singles or in pairs, sometimes in small family groups after fledging. Communal roosting has been observed in three species (and may occur in more), with as many as 20 birds sharing a roosting hole in order to conserve warmth.[7]

Treecreepers forage on the trunks of large trees. They move up the trunk in a progression of small hops. They fly to the bottom of a tree, then climb in a spiral fashion searching for prey. The majority of their diet is composed of small invertebrates, including insects and their larvae, spiders, and pseudoscorpions. In hard times seeds and fruits may be taken, and a few species will also visit birdfeeders. Species in both genera have been recorded joining mixed-species feeding flocks.[7]

The treecreepers are monogamous and territorial. Nests and eggs vary between the genera: the Certhia treecreepers usually nest in a gap between the tree bark and the tree, whereas the nest of the spotted creeper is placed in the fork of a branch.[7] Incubation lasts 14 to 15 days, and young fledge after 15 to 16 days.[6]

Cracraft, J.; Barker, F. Keith; Braun, M. J.; Harshman, J.; Dyke, G.; Feinstein, J.; Stanley, S.; Cibois, A.; Schikler, P.; Beresford, P.; García-Moreno, J.; Sorenson, M. D.; Yuri, T.; Mindell. D. P. (2004) "Phylogenetic relationships among modern birds (Neornithes): Toward an avian tree of life." p468–489 in Assembling the tree of life (J. Cracraft and M. J. Donoghue, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0-19-517234-5
Manegold, Albrecht (April 2008). "Earliest fossil record of the Certhioidea (treecreepers and allies) from the early Miocene of Germany". Journal of Ornithology. 149 (2): 223–228. doi:10.1007/s10336-007-0263-9. S2CID 11900733.
Oliveros, C.H.; et al. (2019). "Earth history and the passerine superradiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States. 116 (16): 7916–7925. doi:10.1073/pnas.1813206116. PMC 6475423. PMID 30936315.
"Treecreeper Certhia familiaris [Linnaeus, 1758]". BirdFacts. British Trust for Ornithology (BTO). Retrieved 2008-05-20.
Manegold, Albrecht (2008). "Earliest fossil record of the Certhioidea (treecreepers and allies) from the early Miocene of Germany". Journal of Ornithology. 149 (2): 223–228. doi:10.1007/s10336-007-0263-9. ISSN 2193-7192.
Mead, Christopher J. (2003). "Holarctic Treecreepers". In Perrins, Christopher (ed.). The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 538–540. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
Harrap, Simon (2008). "Family Certhiidae (Treecreepers)". In Josep, del Hoyo; Andrew, Elliott; David, Christie (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 13, Penduline-tits to Shrikes. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 166–179. ISBN 978-84-96553-45-3.

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