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Charadrius morinellus

Charadrius morinellus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Charadriidae
Genus: Charadrius
Species: Charadrius morinellus

Charadrius morinellus Linnaeus, 1758

Eudromias morinellus


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 150. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: زقزاق أوراسي
asturianu: Pollu Berizu
azərbaycanca: Düymədimdik
башҡортса: Ала сәпсәү
беларуская: Хрустан
български: Планински дъждосвирец
brezhoneg: Morlivid-menez
català: Corriol pit-roig
čeština: Kulík hnědý
Cymraeg: Hutan mynydd
dansk: Pomeransfugl
Deutsch: Mornellregenpfeifer
Ελληνικά: Βουνοπλουμίδι
English: Eurasian Dotterel
Esperanto: Morinelo
español: Chorlito Carambolo
eesti: Roosterind-tüll
euskara: Txirri lepokodun
فارسی: سلیم اوراسیایی
suomi: Keräkurmitsa
føroyskt: Kviðreyð lógv
français: Pluvier guignard
Frysk: Grutte Bûnte Wilster
Gaeilge: Amadán móinteach
Gàidhlig: Amadan-Mòintich
galego: Píllara rubia
Gaelg: Feddag volvaneagh
עברית: חופמי ע־רבה
hrvatski: Kulik lakrdijaš
magyar: Havasi lile
հայերեն: Պինդիրա
íslenska: Fjalllóa
italiano: Piviere tortolino
日本語: コバシチドリ
ქართული: ტიბუარა
қазақша: Алқалы татрењ
한국어: 흰눈썹물떼새
Lëtzebuergesch: Mornell
lietuvių: Mornelis
latviešu: Morinella tārtiņš
македонски: Жолтоного блатарче
монгол: Урианхай сүвээ цагаан - ᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠲᠣ
Malti: Birwina
Nederlands: Morinelplevier
norsk nynorsk: Boltit
norsk: Boltit
Diné bizaad: Tó wónaanídę́ę́ʼ halgaiisdísí
polski: Mornel
português: Borrelho-ruivo
rumantsch: Gravarel brin
română: Prundăraş de munte
русский: Хрустан
саха тыла: Алтан түөс
Scots: Doiterel
davvisámegiella: Láfol
slovenčina: Kulík vrchovský
slovenščina: Dular
српски / srpski: Planinski zujavac - Планински зујавац
svenska: Fjällpipare
Türkçe: Dağ cılıbıtı
українська: Хрустан
中文: 小嘴鸻

The Eurasian dotterel (Charadrius morinellus), also known in Europe as just dotterel, is a small wader in the plover family of birds.

The dotterel is a brown and black streaked bird with a broad white eye-stripe and an orange-red chest band when in breeding plumage. The female is more colourful than the male. The bird is tame and unsuspecting and the term "dotterel" has been applied contemptuously to mean an old fool.

The Eurasian dotterel is a migratory species, breeding in northern Europe and Eurosiberia and migrating south to north Africa and the Middle East in the winter. It nests in a bare scrape on the ground and lays two to four eggs. The male does the incubation and rears the chicks, the female having gone off to find another male and lay another clutch of eggs. It is a common bird with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as being of "least concern".


The English name dates from 1440 when it was used to refer to the bird and also as an insult for someone considered simple or a dotard. It is not clear which use is the oldest,[2] but the link is its tame and unsuspecting nature which made it easy to catch; its Scottish Gaelic name is amadan-mòintich, "fool of the moors."[3] King James VI and I went every year to Royston, Hertfordshire to shoot dotterels.[4] It was also easy prey for illegal poaching, which depleted its stocks. They were also prized as a delicacy: in 1534 Queen Anne Boleyn was presented with "a brace of dotterels".[5]

The genus name Charadrius is a Late Latin word for a yellowish bird mentioned in the fourth-century Vulgate. It derives from Ancient Greek kharadrios, a bird found in ravines and river valleys (kharadra, "ravine"). The specific morinellus is Ancient Greek derived from moros "foolish", due to the bird's trusting nature.[6]

This plover is smaller and more compact than European golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria). It has a striking whitish supercilium in all plumages and has plain wings in flight. Adults in summer are unmistakable, with a chestnut breast bordered above with white, black belly and warm brown back. The legs are yellow, and the short bill is black. As with the phalaropes, the female is brighter than the male.

Winter birds lack the rich underpart colouration, apart from the white breast line, and are greyer above. Young birds are similar but have a scaly appearance to their backs.
Distribution and habitat

It breeds in the Arctic tundra of northern Eurosiberia, from Norway to eastern Siberia, and on suitable mountain plateaus such as the Scottish highlands and the Alps. This species is migratory, wintering in a narrow belt across north Africa from Morocco eastwards to Iran. Migration stopovers are traditional, and small parties (trips) of dotterels pass through each year at these usually inland arable or grassy sites. The winter habitat is semi-desert.
Behaviour and ecology

The dotterel's diet is made up of insects and other small invertebrates such as snails and worms and shellfish. These are obtained by a run-and-pause technique, rather than the steady probing used by other waders.

The flight call is a soft pyurr. The female's song is a simple repetitive whistle.

The male dotterel generally is responsible for incubation and looks after the chicks. In most cases the cock dotterel successfully prevents other males from getting his mate and fertilizing her eggs. He usually rears chicks that he has fathered and only 4.6% (2/44) of chicks were not the genetic offspring of the caring male, corresponding to 9.1% (2/22) broods affected.[7]
It is a relatively common species with a wide range. Populations seem to be declining slowly but not alarmingly so, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as a "least-concern species". A survey published in 2015 showed a fall in dotterel numbers in Scotland between 1987 and 2011, from 980 to 423 breeding males - representing a decline of 57%.[8] The Eurasian dotterel is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.


BirdLife International (2012). "Eudromias morinellus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
"Dotterel". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
Armstrong, Robert Archibald (1825). A Gaelic Dictionary in Two Parts. To which is Prefixed a New Gaelic Grammar. Duncan. p. 20. "amadan-mòintich."
Quinlan, Ray (2003). The Greater Ridgeway. Milnthorpe, Cumbria, UK: Cicerone Press Limited. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-85284-346-5.
Weir, Alison"The Six Wives of Henry VIII" Pimlico edition 1992 p. 264
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 99, 260. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Owens, Ian P.F.; Dixon, Andrew; Burke, Terry; Thompson, Des B.A. (1995). "Strategic paternity assurance in the sex-role reversed Eurasian dotterel (Charadrius morinellus): behavioral and genetic evidence". Behavioral Ecology. 6: 14–21. doi:10.1093/beheco/6.1.14.

"Changes in the abundance and distribution of a montane specialist bird". Taylor & Francis. 62 (4). Bird Study. Retrieved 28 October 2015.

Further reading
Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1991). Shorebirds: An Identification Guide to the Waders of the World. ISBN 978-0-7099-2034-2.
Tsherbakov, B.V. "Breeding Dotterels Charadrius morinellus in the Altai mountains of Kazakhstan" (PDF). International Wader Studies. 10: 342–344. "It is not only the males which incubate clutches and rear the chicks: on 24 June 1971, a female was collected from a nest with eggs."

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