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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Nectariniidae
Genus: Cinnyris
Species: C. afer – C. asiaticus – C. batesi – C. bifasciatus – C. bouvieri – C. buettikoferi – C. chacomelas – C. chalybeus – C. chloropygius – C. coccinigastrus – C. comorensis – C. congensis – C. coquerellii – C. cupreus – C. dussumieri – C. erythrocercus – C. fuscus – C. habessinicus – C. humbloti – C. johannae – C. jugularis – C. lotenius – C. loveridgei – C. ludovicensis – C. manoensis – C. mariquensis – C. mediocris – C. minullus – C. moreaui – C. nectarinioides – C. neergaardi – C. notatus – C. osea – C. oustaleti – C. pembae – C. prigoginei – C. pulchellus – C. regius – C. reichenowi – C. rockefelleri – C. rufipennis – C. shelleyi – C. solaris – C. sovimanga – C. stuhlmanni – C. superbus – C. talatala – C. tsavoensis – C. ursulae – C. venustus

Cinnyris Cuvier, 1816: 411

Cuvier G.L. 1816–1817. Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. Avec Figures, dessinées d'après nature. Tome I. Contenant l'introduction, les mammifères et les oiseaux. Edition 1, Deterville, Paris. pp. i-xxxvii + 1–540. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.41460 BHL Reference page. [original description: p. 411]

Bowie, R.C.K., Fjeldså, J., Kiure, J. & Kristensen, J.B. 2016. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Africa. Zootaxa 4175(1): 23–42. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4175.1.3. Reference page.

Cinnyris is a genus of sunbirds. Its members are sometimes included in Nectarinia. They are generally known as double-collared sunbirds because the fringe of their bib usually includes a band of contrastingly coloured feathers.[1]

The sunbirds are a group of very small Old World passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed.

The genus was introduced by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1816.[2] The type species was designated as "Certhia splendida Shaw" by George Robert Gray in 1855.[3] This taxon is a junior synonym of Certhia coccinigaster described by John Latham in 1801. This is now the splendid sunbird.[4][5][6] The name Cinnyris is from the Ancient Greek κιννυρις (kinnyris), an unknown small bird mentioned by Hesychius of Alexandria.[7]

It is suspected that the genus is polyphyletic and the positions of many are unresolved:[8][9]

The genus contains 56 species:[5]

Olive-bellied sunbird, Cinnyris chloropygius
Tiny sunbird, Cinnyris minullus
Eastern Miombo sunbird, Cinnyris manoensis
Western Miombo sunbird, Cinnyris gertrudis – split from eastern Miombo sunbird
Southern double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris chalybeus
Neergaard's sunbird, Cinnyris neergaardi
Rwenzori double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris stuhlmanni
Whyte’s double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris whytei – split from Ludwig's double-collared sunbird
Prigogine's double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris prigoginei
Ludwig's double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris ludovicensis
Northern double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris reichenowi
Greater double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris afer
Regal sunbird, Cinnyris regius
Rockefeller's sunbird, Cinnyris rockefelleri
Eastern double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris mediocris
Usambara double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris usambaricus – split from eastern double-collared sunbird
Forest double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris fuelleborni
Moreau's sunbird, Cinnyris moreaui
Beautiful sunbird, Cinnyris pulchellus
Loveridge's sunbird, Cinnyris loveridgei
Marico sunbird, Cinnyris mariquensis
Shelley's sunbird, Cinnyris shelleyi
Hofmann's sunbird, Cinnyris hofmanni
Congo sunbird, Cinnyris congensis
Red-chested sunbird, Cinnyris erythrocerca
Black-bellied sunbird, Cinnyris nectarinioides
Purple-banded sunbird, Cinnyris bifasciatus
Tsavo sunbird, Cinnyris tsavoensis - sometimes included in C. bifasciatus
Violet-breasted sunbird, Cinnyris chalcomelas
Pemba sunbird, Cinnyris pembae
Orange-tufted sunbird, Cinnyris bouvieri
Palestine sunbird, Cinnyris osea
Shining sunbird, Cinnyris habessinicus
Splendid sunbird, Cinnyris coccinigaster
Johanna's sunbird, Cinnyris johannae
Superb sunbird, Cinnyris superbus
Rufous-winged sunbird, Cinnyris rufipennis
Oustalet's sunbird, Cinnyris oustaleti
White-bellied sunbird, Cinnyris talatala
Variable sunbird, Cinnyris venustus
Dusky sunbird, Cinnyris fuscus
Ursula's sunbird, Cinnyris ursulae
Bates's sunbird, Cinnyris batesi
Copper sunbird, Cinnyris cupreus
Purple sunbird, Cinnyris asiaticus
Olive-backed sunbird, Cinnyris jugularis
Apricot-breasted sunbird, Cinnyris buettikoferi
Flame-breasted sunbird, Cinnyris solaris
Souimanga sunbird, Cinnyris sovimanga
Abbott's sunbird, Cinnyris abbotti
Seychelles sunbird, Cinnyris dussumieri
Malagasy green sunbird, Cinnyris notatus
Humblot's sunbird, Cinnyris humbloti
Anjouan sunbird, Cinnyris comorensis
Mayotte sunbird, Cinnyris coquerellii
Loten's sunbird, Cinnyris lotenius


Macdonald, J. D. (1959). "Old and New Lines in Taxonomy". Ibis. 101 (3–4): 330–334. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1959.tb02389.x. ISSN 1474-919X.
Cuvier, Georges (1816). Le Règne animal distribué d'après son organisation : pour servir de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction a l'anatomie comparée (in French). Volume 1. Paris: Déterville. p. 411.
Gray, George Robert (1855). Catalogue of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds Contained in the British Museum. London: British Museum. p. 19.
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1986). Check-List of Birds of the World. Volume 12. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 223.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Dippers, leafbirds, flowerpeckers, sunbirds". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
Warren, Ben H; Bermingham, Eldredge; Bowie, Rauri CK; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Thébaud, Christophe (2003). "Molecular phylogeography reveals island colonization history and diversification of western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia: Nectariniidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 29 (1): 67–85. doi:10.1016/s1055-7903(03)00063-0. PMID 12967608.

Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Fjeldså, Jon; Hackett, Shannon J.; Crowe, Timothy M.; Fleischer, R. C. (2004). "Systematics and biogeography of double-collared sunbirds from the eastern arc mountains, tanzania". The Auk. 121 (3): 660–681. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0660:sabods];2.

Other sources
Barlow, Wacher and Disley, Birds of The Gambia ISBN 1-873403-32-1
Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, Birds of India ISBN 0-691-04910-6
Robson, Craig A Field Guide to the Birds of Thailand ISBN 1-84330-921-1
Sinclair, Ian; Hockey, Phil; Tarboton, Warwick (2002). SASOL Birds of Southern Africa. Struik. ISBN 978-1-86872-721-6.

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