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Giant Conebill, Cajas, Ecuador (5771232969)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Conirostrum
Species: Conirostrum binghami

Conirostrum binghami (Chapman, 1919)

Type locality: Cedrobamba ruins, Machu Picchu, 12,000 feet (c. 3660 m), Peru.


Oreomanes binghami (protonym)
Oreomanes fraseri P.L. Sclater, 1860
Type locality: Monte Chimborazo, 14,000 feet (c. 4270 m), Ecuador.

Primary references

Chapman, F.M. 1919. Descriptions of proposed new Birds from Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 41(5): 323–333. hdl: 2246/1747 Open access Full article (PDF) Reference page. Original description p.331
Sclater, P.L. 1860. List of Birds collected by Mr. Louis Fraser in the vicinity of Quito, and during excursions to Pichincha and Chimborazo; with Notes and Descriptions of New Species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 28(1): 73-83. BHL Reference page. Original description p.75 BHL pl.159 BHL

Additional references

Burns, K.J., Shultz, A.J., Title, P.O., Mason N.A., Barker, F.K., Klicka, J., Lanyon, S.M. & Lovette, I.J. 2014. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 75:41–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006 Full article (PDF) Open accessReference page. 
Barker, F.K., Burns, K.J., Klicka, J., Lanyon, S.M. & Lovette, I.J. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: An integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. The Auk 132(2): 333-348. DOI: 10.1642/AUK-14-110.1 Open accessReference page. 
Burns, K.J., Unitt, P. & Mason, N.A. 2016. A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes). Zootaxa 4088(3): 329–354. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4088.3.2 Paywall.Reference page. 

Vernacular names
English: Giant Conebill
español: Conirrostro gigante

The giant conebill (Conirostrum binghami) is a small passerine bird, one of the tanager family. It is closely related to the regular conebills Conirostrum though it differs in its larger size and nuthatch-like foraging habits.

The giant conebill is 15 centimetres (5.9 in) in length and weighs 22–27 grams (0.78–0.95 oz). It is grey above, deep chestnut below, and with a white patch on the cheeks. It is found in the Andes from Colombia to Ecuador, and Peru to Bolivia. It lives in Polylepis trees of the family Rosaceae.

The giant conebill lives individually or in groups of 5 or less. It peels bark off Polylepis trees to find insects. It also eats aphids and sugary solutions secreted by Gynoxys. The species is a seasonal breeder, nesting at the start of the rainy season (September to December in Bolivia where it has been studied). The nest is an open cup set on the branches of Polylepis, and the average clutch size is 1.8 eggs. Both parents incubate the eggs, feed the chicks and remove the fecal sacs.[2]

Its decline is attributed to the destruction and fragmentation of Polylepis woodland.

1 Taxonomy
2 References
3 Further reading
4 External links


The taxonomy is complicated. The giant conebill was formally described in 1860 by the English zoologist Philip Sclater from a specimen collected by Louis Fraser. Sclater coined the binomial name Oreomanes fraseri.[3][4] A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2014 found that the giant conebill was embedded in a clade containing members of the genus Conirostrum.[5] As Conirostrum d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838, was introduced before Oreomanes Sclater, 1860, Conirostrum has priority and Oreomanes was merged into Conirostrum. But as the cinereous conebill has a recognised subspecies, Conirostrum cinereum fraseri Sclater, 1859, the specific name of the giant conebill was changed to that of its junior synonym Oreomanes binghami. This had been introduced in 1919 by the American ornithologist Frank Chapman based on a specimen collected near Machu Picchu in Peru. The specific epithet was chosen to honour Hiram Bingham.[6][7][8] The giant conebill is monotypic: no subspecies are recognised.[7]

BirdLife International (2016). "Conirostrum binghami". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22722114A94749917. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22722114A94749917.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Cahill, J; E. Matthysen; N. E. Huanca (2008). "Nesting biology of the Giant Conebill (Oreomanes fraseri) in the High Andes of Bolivia". Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 120 (3): 545–549. doi:10.1676/07-066.1. S2CID 85970323.
Sclater, Philip Lutley (1860). "List of Birds collected by Mr. Fraser in the vicinity of Quito, and during excursions to Pichincha and Chimborazo; with notes and descriptions of new species". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 28: 73-83 [75, Plate 159].
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1970). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. pp. 398–399.
Burns, K.J.; Shultz, A.J.; Title, P.O.; Mason, N.A.; Barker, F.K.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2014). "Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41–77. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006. PMID 24583021.
Burns, K.J.; Unitt, P.; Mason, N.A. (2016). "A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes)". Zootaxa. 4088 (3): 329–354. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4088.3.2. PMID 27394344.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Tanagers and allies". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 17 October 2020.

Chapman, Frank M. (1919). "Descriptions of proposed new birds from Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 41: 323–333 [331–332].

Further reading

BirdLife Species Factsheet
Mason, N. A. and K. J. Burns. 2010 .Giant Conebill (Oreomanes fraseri), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online:
Ridgely, R. S., & G. Tudor. 1989. The birds of South America, vol. 1. Univ. Texas Press, Austin.
Schulenberg, T. S. 1985. An intergeneric hybrid conebill (Conirostrum X Oreomanes) from Peru. pp. 390–395 in "Neotropical Ornithology" (P. A. Buckley et al., eds.), Ornithol. Monogr. No. 36.
Zimmer, J. 1942d. Studies of Peruvian birds, No. 43. Notes on The genera Dacnis, Xenodacnis, Coereba, Conirostrum, and Oreomanes. 1193: 1–16.

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