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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Icteridae
Genus: Euphagus
Species: E. carolinus - E. cyanocephalus


Euphagus Cassin, 1867

Psarocolius cyanocephalus Wagler, 1829, = Euphagus cyanocephalus


Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 18: 413.

Vernacular names
Esperanto: Eŭfagoj
suomi: Amerikanturpiaalit
lietuvių: Trupialai
русский: Малые трупиалы

Euphagus cyanocephalus
Male Brewer's blackbird
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Icteridae
Genus: Euphagus
Cassin, 1867

E. carolinus
E. cyanocephalus

Euphagus is a small genus of American blackbirds. It contains two extant species: Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus, and rusty blackbird E. carolinus.[1]

The living species are very similar medium-sized birds. Adult males have mainly black plumage and a bright yellow eye; females are dark gray-brown.
Extant species

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Brewers Blackbird Esquimalt Lagoon.jpg Euphagus cyanocephalus Brewer's blackbird United States, Canada
Rusty Blackbird (26280355122).jpg E. carolinus rusty blackbird United States, Canada, Mexico

A prehistoric relative, the large-billed blackbird (Euphagus magnirostris), is known from Late Pleistocene fossils found in the famous tar seeps of Rancho La Brea, California, as well as the Talara Tar Seeps of northwestern Peru and the Mene de Inciarte Tar Seep of Venezuela. It may have been a close associate of Pleistocene megafauna communities and went extinct following the collapse of the megafauna populations.[2][3]

Both are migratory, wintering in the southern United States and Mexico, although some Brewer's blackbirds are present all year in the western US.

They build cup nests, and the female alone incubates the eggs. They are gregarious outside the breeding season.

Both species feed on seeds and insects, the rusty having a particularly high insect component to its diet. The fortunes of the two species are contrasting, with Brewer's expanding east in the Great Lakes region, while rusty shows a worrying decline in numbers.

"ITIS Report: Euphagus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
Miller, Alden H. (January 1947). "A New Genus of Icterid from Rancho La Brea" (PDF). The Condor. 49 (1): 22–24. doi:10.2307/1364424. JSTOR 1364424.

Steadman, David W.; Oswald, Jessica A. (July 2020). "New species of troupial (Icterus) and cowbird (Molothrus) from ice-age Peru". The Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 132 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1676/1559-4491-132.1.91. ISSN 1559-4491.

Jaramillo, Alvaro & Burke, Peter (1999): New World Blackbirds. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-4333-1

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