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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Sylvioidea

Familia: Leiothrichidae
Genus: Garrulax
Species: G. albogularis – G. annamensis – G. berthemyi – G. bicolor – G. bietiG. caerulatus – G. calvus – G. canorus – G. castanotis – G. chinensis – G. cineraceus – G. cinereifrons – G. courtoisi – G. davidi – G. delesserti – G. ferrarius – G. galbanus – G. gularis – G. konkakinhensis – G. leucolophus – G. lugubris – G. lunulatus – G. maesi – G. maximus – G. merulinus – G. milleti – G. mitratus – G. monileger – G. nuchalis – G. ocellatus – G. palliatus – G. pectoralis – G. perspicillatus – G. poecilorhynchus – G. ruficeps – G. ruficollis – G. rufifrons – G. rufogularis – G. sannio – G. strepitans – G. striatus – G. sukatschewi – G. taewanus – G. treacheri – G. vassali


Garrulax Lesson, 1831

Garrulax rufifrons, Lesson 1831


Lesson, R.P. 1830–1831. Traité d'ornithologie, ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d'oiseaux : ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. F. G. Levrault, Paris. Vol. 1: pp. i–xxxii, 1–659. BHL Reference page. : 647.
Collar, N. J., 2006. A partial revision of the Asian babblers (Timaliidae). Forktail 22: 85–112.

Vernacular names
English: Laughingthrushes
français: Garrulaxes
日本語: ガビチョウ亜科
русский: Кустарницы
中文: 噪鹛属

Garrulax is a genus of passerine birds in the laughingthrush family Leiothrichidae.

The genus Garrulax was erected by the French naturalist René Lesson in 1831.[1] The type species was designated in 1961 as the rufous-fronted laughingthrush (Garrulax rufifrons).[2]

The genus previously included more species. Following the publication of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study in 2018, Garrulax was split up and species were moved to the resurrected genera Ianthocincla and Pterorhinus.[3][4]

Garrulax species are heavily traded as songbirds. A survey of eight bird markets in Indonesia, carried out in 2014–2015, found 615 laughingthrushes of nine species openly for sale.[5] Much of the trade in these species in Indonesia is illegal and is pushing a number of these species towards extinction.[6]

The genus contains the following 14 species:[4]

Lesser necklaced laughingthrush, Garrulax monileger
Rufous-fronted laughingthrush, Garrulax rufifrons
White-crested laughingthrush, Garrulax leucolophus
Black-hooded laughingthrush, Garrulax milleti
Sumatran laughingthrush, Garrulax bicolor
White-necked laughingthrush, Garrulax strepitans
Cambodian laughingthrush, Garrulax ferrarius
Grey laughingthrush, Garrulax maesi
Rufous-cheeked laughingthrush, Garrulax castanotis
Sunda laughingthrush, Garrulax palliatus
Chinese hwamei, Garrulax canorus
Taiwan hwamei, Garrulax taewanus
Spot-breasted laughingthrush, Garrulax merulinus
Orange-breasted laughingthrush, Garrulax annamensis


Lesson, René (1831). Traité d'Ornithologie, ou Tableau Méthodique (in French). Paris: F.G. Levrault. p. 647.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Cibois, A.; Gelang, M.; Alström, P.; Pasquet, E.; Fjeldså, J.; Ericson, P.G.P.; Olsson, U. (2018). "Comprehensive phylogeny of the laughingthrushes and allies (Aves, Leiothrichidae) and a proposal for a revised taxonomy". Zoologica Scripta. 47 (4): 428–440. doi:10.1111/zsc.12296.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Laughingthrushes and allies". World Bird List Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
Shepherd et al. (2016)

Shepherd (2010)

Collar, N. J. & Robson C. 2007. Family Timaliidae (Babblers) pp. 70 – 291 in; del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D.A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Shepherd, C. R. (2010). Observations on trade in laughingthrushes (Garrulax spp.) in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International, 21 (1): 86–91.
Shepherd, C. R., Eaton, J. A. and Chng, S. C. L. (2016). Nothing to laugh about – the ongoing illegal trade in laughingthrushes (Garrulax species) in the bird markets of Java, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International, 26(4): 524–530.

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