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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Sylvioidea

Familia: Pycnonotidae
Genus: Hypsipetes
Species: H. amaurotis - H. borbonicus - H. crassirostris - H. leucocephalus - H. madagascariensis -H. olivaceus - H. parvirostris

Hypsipetes Vigors, 1831

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1 (4): 43

Vernacular names
日本語: ヒヨドリ属

Hypsipetes is a genus of bulbuls, songbirds in the family Pycnonotidae. Most of its species occur in tropical forests around the Indian Ocean. But while the genus is quite diverse in the Madagascar region at the western end of its range it does not reach the African mainland.

Most Hypsipetes bulbuls are dark greyish birds with orange or red bills and feet. The feathers on top of the head are slightly elongated and usually black, and can be erected to form a short and wispy crest.
Taxonomy and systematics

The genus Hypsipetes was introduced in 1831 by the Irish zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors with Hypsipetes psaroides as the type species.[1] This taxon is now a subspecies of the black bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus psaroides.[2][3] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek hupsi meaning "high" with petēs meaning "-flyer".[4]

The genus contains 19 species:[3]

Philippine bulbul (Hypsipetes philippinus)
Mindoro bulbul (Hypsipetes mindorensis)
Streak-breasted bulbul (Hypsipetes siquijorensis)
Seram golden bulbul (Hypsipetes affinis) [a]
Northern golden bulbul (Hypsipetes longirostris) [a][b]
Buru golden bulbul (Hypsipetes mysticalis)[a]
Visayan bulbul (Hypsipetes guimarasensis)
Yellowish bulbul (Hypsipetes everetti)
Camiguin bulbul (Hypsipetes catarmanensis)
Zamboanga bulbul (Hypsipetes rufigularis)
Brown-eared bulbul (Hypsipetes amaurotis)
Reunion bulbul (Hypsipetes borbonicus)
Malagasy bulbul (Hypsipetes madagascariensis)
Mauritius bulbul (Hypsipetes olivaceus)
White-headed bulbul (Hypsipetes thompsoni)[c]
Black bulbul (Hypsipetes leucocephalus)
Square-tailed bulbul (Hypsipetes ganeesa)
Grand Comoro bulbul (Hypsipetes parvirostris)
Moheli bulbul (Hypsipetes moheliensis)
Seychelles bulbul (Hypsipetes crassirostris)

Extinct species

†Rodrigues bulbul (Hypsipetes cowlesi)

Former species

Some authorities, either presently or formerly, recognize several additional species as belonging to the genus Hypsipetes including:

Eastern bearded greenbul (as Hypsipetes malaccensis)[8]
Yellow-browed bulbul (as Hypsipetes indica or Hypsipetes indicus)[9]
Hairy-backed bulbul (as Hypsipetes criniger)[10]
Olive bulbul (as Hypsipetes virescens or Hypsipetes viridescens)[11]
Grey-eyed bulbul (as Hypsipetes propinquus)[12]
Buff-vented bulbul (as Hypsipetes olivacea)[13]
Sulphur-bellied bulbul (as Hypsipetes palawanensis)[14]
Nicobar bulbul (as Hypsipetes nicobariensis, Hypsipetes virescens, or Ixocincla virescens)[15][16]
Mountain bulbul (as Hypsipetes mcclellandi or Hypsipetes mcclellandii)[17] was often included in Hypsipetes due to an error that was promoted in modern times by the Sibley taxonomy[18]
Mountain bulbul (tickelli) (as Hypsipetes tickelli)[19] was often included in Hypsipetes due to an error that was promoted in modern times by the Sibley taxonomy[18]
Mountain bulbul (holtii) (as Hypsipetes holtii)[20] was often included in Hypsipetes due to an error that was promoted in modern times by the Sibley taxonomy[18]
Streaked bulbul (as Hypsipetes malaccensis)[21]
Sunda bulbul (as Hypsipetes virescens)[22] was often included in Hypsipetes due to an error that was promoted in modern times by the Sibley taxonomy[18]
Seram golden bulbul (as Hypsipetes affinis)[23]
Ashy bulbul (as Hypsipetes flavalus)[24]
Chestnut bulbul (as Hypsipetes castanonotus)[25]
White-headed bulbul (as Hypsipetes thompsoni)[26]


Three species formerly assigned to Thapsinillas were moved to Hypsipetes after molecular phylogenetic analysis found Hypsipetes affinis embedded in the Hypsipetes clade.[5][3]
This species has six subspecies according te the IOC. Some authorities recognise some or all of these subspecies as full species.[6][7]

A species formerly placed in the monotypoc genus Cerasophila was moved to Hypsipetes after molecular phylogenetic analysis found embedded in the Hypsipetes clade.[5][3]


Vigors, Nicholas Aylward (1831). "Hypsipetes". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 1 (4): 43.
Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. pp. 491–492. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Bulbuls". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Shakya, Subir B.; Sheldon, Frederick H. (2017). "The phylogeny of the world's bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) inferred using a supermatrix approach". Ibis. 159 (3): 498–509. doi:10.1111/ibi.12464. ISSN 0019-1019.
"Explore Taxonomy". Birds of the World Online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
"Sula Golden-Bulbul (Alophoixus longirostris)". Birds of the World Online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
"Criniger chloronotus - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-05-09.
"Acritillas indica - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-02.
"Tricholestes criniger - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-02.
"Iole viridescens - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-04.
"Iole propinqua - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-05.
"Iole charlottae - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-05.
"Iole palawanensis - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-05.
"Ixos nicobariensis - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-06.
Balfour, Edward (1871). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. Printed at the Scottish & Adelphi presses.
"Ixos mcclellandii - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
Gregory (2000)
"Ixos mcclellandii tickelli - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
"Ixos mcclellandii holtii - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
"Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-08-25.
"Ixos virescens (Sunda Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-24.
"Thapsinillas [affinis, mystacalis or longirostris] (Golden Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-18.
"Hemixos flavala (Ashy Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-23.
"Hemixos casteonotus (Chestnut Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-23.

"Cerasophila thompsoni (White-headed Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-11-08.


Media related to Hypsipetes at Wikimedia Commons

Gregory, Steven M. (2000): Nomenclature of the Hypsipetes Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae). Forktail 16: 164–166. PDF fulltext
Moyle, Robert G. & Marks, Ben D. (2006): Phylogenetic relationships of the bulbuls (Aves: Pycnonotidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40(3): 687–695. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.04.015 (HTML abstract)
Pasquet, Éric; Han, Lian-Xian; Khobkhet, Obhas & Cibois, Alice (2001): Towards a molecular systematics of the genus Criniger, and a preliminary phylogeny of the bulbuls (Aves, Passeriformes, Pycnonotidae). Zoosystema 23(4): 857–863. PDF fulltext

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