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Lophophorus impejanus

Lophophorus impejanus

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Galloanseres

Ordo: Galliformes

Familia: Phasianidae
Subfamilia: Phasianinae
Genus: Lophophorus
Species: Lophophorus impejanus

Lophophorus impejanus (Latham, 1790)

Phasianus impejanus (protonym)

Lophophorus impejanus Print by John Gerrard Keulemans

Lophophorus impejanus, John Gerrard Keulemans


Latham, J. 1790. Index ornithologicus, sive systema ornithologiæ; complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates: adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Volumen II: 467–920. Londini. (Leigh & Sotheby). BHL Reference page. : 632.

Vernacular names
български: Хималайски монал
भोजपुरी: हिमालयी मोनल
brezhoneg: Monal Himalaya
català: Monal de l'Himàlaia
čeština: Bažant lesklý
dansk: Glansfasan
Deutsch: Himalaya-Glanzfasan
English: Himalayan Monal
Esperanto: Himalaja monalo
español: Monal colirrojo
فارسی: کاکل‌پری هیمالیا
français: Lophophore resplendissant
Gaeilge: Monál Himiléach
עברית: לופפור נוצץ
हिन्दी: हिमालयी मोनाल
magyar: Himalájai fényfácán
italiano: Lofoforo splendido
日本語: ニジキジ
മലയാളം: ഹിമാലയൻ മൊണാൽ
नेपाली: डाँफे
Nederlands: Himalayaglansfazant
polski: Olśniak himalajski
پنجابی: مونال
русский: Гималайский монал
svenska: Himalayamonal
தமிழ்: இமயமலை மோனல் பெசண்ட்
українська: Гімалайський монал
中文: 棕尾虹雉

The Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), also known as the Impeyan monal and Impeyan pheasant, is a pheasant native to Himalayan forests and shrublands at elevations of 2,100–4,500 m (6,900–14,800 ft). It is part of the family Phasianidae and is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.[1] It is the national bird of Nepal, where it is known as the danphe or danfe,[2] and state bird of Uttarakhand, India, where it is known as the monal.[3][4] It was also the state bird of Himachal Pradesh until 2007.[5]

The scientific name commemorates Lady Mary Impey, the wife of the British chief justice of Bengal, Sir Elijah Impey.

A female in Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary, India

It is a relatively large-sized pheasant. The bird is about 70 cm (28 in) long. The male weighs up to 2,380 g (84 oz) and the female 2,150 g (76 oz). The adult male has multicoloured plumage throughout, while the female, as in other pheasants, is more subdued in colour. Notable features in the male include a long, metallic green crest, coppery feathers on the back and neck, and a prominent white rump that is most visible when the bird is in flight. The tail feathers of the male are uniformly rufous, becoming darker towards the tips, whereas the lower tail coverts of females are white, barred with black and red. The female has a prominent white patch on the throat and a white strip on the tail. The first-year male and the juvenile resemble the female, but the first-year male is larger and the juvenile is less distinctly marked.
Distribution and habitat
Eggs, collection Museum Wiesbaden

The Himalayan monal's native range extends from Afghanistan and Pakistan through the Himalayas in India, Nepal, southern Tibet, and Bhutan.[1] In Pakistan, it is most common in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and has also been recorded in Kaghan, Palas Valley, and Kashmir.[6] It lives in upper temperate oak-conifer forests interspersed with open grassy slopes, cliffs and alpine meadows between 2400 and 4500 meters, where it is most common between 2700 and 3700 meters. It descends to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in the winter. It tolerates snow and digs through it to obtain plant roots and invertebrate prey.
Behaviour and ecology

The breeding season is April through August, and they generally form pairs at this time. In winter they congregate in large coveys and roost communally.

In some areas, the species is threatened due to poaching and other anthropogenic factors. In the western Himalayas, the local monal population responded negatively to human disturbance involving hydroelectric power development.[7] The male monal was under hunting pressure in Himachal Pradesh, where the crest feather was used to decorate men's hats, until 1982, when hunting was banned in the state. ]

The pheasant is not considered endangered in Pakistan and can be easily located. In some areas, the population density of the species is as high as five pairs per square mile. The main threat to the species is poaching, as the crest is valuable. It is thought to bring status to its wearer and is a symbol of authority.[6]


BirdLife International (2016). "Lophophorus impejanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22679182A92806166.
"Animal stories: Danfe". The Himalayan Times. 2007. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
"Archived copy". Garhwal Mandal Vikas Nigam. Government of Uttarakhand. Archived from the original on 2013-07-15. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
Goswami, Amrita (9 October 2012). "सबसे सुंदर पंछियों में से एक मोनाल" [Monal is one of the most beautiful birds]. Prabha Sakshi (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 12 April 2013.
"Western tragopan is state bird". The Tribune. 17 October 2016.
"Himalayan Monal". Pheasants of Pakistan. Wildlife of Pakistan. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
Jolli, V. and Pandit, M. K. (2011). Influence of human disturbance on the abundance of Himalayan Pheasant (Aves, Galliformes) in the temperate forest of Western Himalaya, India. Vestnik Zoologii 45(6): e40-e47.doi:10.2478/v10058-011-0035-0

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