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Panurus biarmicus

Panurus biarmicus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Panuridae
Genus: Panurus
Species: Panurus biarmicus
Subspecies: P. b. biarmicus – P. b. kosswigi – P. b. russicus

Panurus biarmicus (Linnaeus, 1758)


Parus biarmicus (protonym)


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 190.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Baardmannetjie
العربية: قرقف ابو ذقن
беларуская: Вусатая сініца
български: Мустакато тръстикарче
brezhoneg: Panur mourraouek
català: Mallerenga de bigotis
čeština: Sýkořice vousatá
Cymraeg: Titw barfog
dansk: Skægmejse
Deutsch: Bartmeise
Ελληνικά: Μουστακαλής
English: Bearded Reedling
Esperanto: Barboparuo
español: Bigotudo
eesti: Roohabekas
euskara: Tximutx
فارسی: منقارطوطی ریشو
suomi: Viiksitimali
français: Panure à moustaches
Gaeilge: Meantán croiméalach
עברית: שפמתן
magyar: Barkóscinege
հայերեն: Բեղավոր երաշտահավ
italiano: Basettino
日本語: ヒゲガラ
қазақша: Сары шымшық
한국어: 수염오목눈이
kurdî: Fîsqegulê bisimbêl
lietuvių: Ūsuotoji zylė
latviešu: Bārdzīlīte
македонски: Мустаклеста сипка
монгол: Сахалт шагшуургабялзуухай
Nederlands: Baardman
norsk nynorsk: Skjeggmeis
norsk: Skjeggmeis
polski: Wąsatka
română: Pițigoi de stuf
русский: Усатая синица
slovenčina: Fúzatka trstinová
српски / srpski: Брката сеница
svenska: Skäggmes
Türkçe: Bıyıklı baştankara
українська: Синиця вусата
vèneto: Mustacin
Tiếng Việt: Sẻ ngô râu
中文: 文须雀

List of Cyprus birds

The bearded reedling (Panurus biarmicus) is a small, sexually dimorphic reed-bed passerine bird. It is frequently known as the bearded tit, due to some similarities to the long-tailed tit, or the bearded parrotbill. It is the only species in the family Panuridae.

Taxonomy and systematics

The bearded reedling was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758. He placed it in the genus Parus with the tits. The species has since been placed with the parrotbills in the family Paradoxornithidae, after they were removed from the true tits in the family. More recent research suggests it is a unique songbird – no other living species seems to be particularly closely related to it.[2] The species is now placed in the monotypic family Panuridae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the bearded reedling is most closely related to the lark family Alaudidae.[3] The current genus name, Panurus, is from Ancient Greek panu, "exceedingly", and ουρά, "tail". The specific biarmicus is from "Biarmia", a Latinised form of Bjarmaland, formerly part of what is now the Arkhangelsk Oblast area of Russia.[4]

This is a small orange-brown bird, L 16.5 cm (6.5 in), with a long tail and an undulating flight. The bill is yellow-orange. The male has a grey head and black moustaches (not a beard); the lower tail coverts are also black. The female is generally paler, with no black moustache. Flocks often betray their presence in a reedbed by their characteristic "ping" call.
Distribution and habitat

This species is a wetland specialist, breeding colonially in large reed beds by lakes or swamps. It eats reed aphids in summer, and reed seeds in winter, its digestive system changing to cope with the very different seasonal diets.[5]

The bearded reedling is a species of temperate Europe and across the Palearctic. It is resident, and most birds do not migrate other than eruptive or cold weather movements. It is vulnerable to hard winters, which may kill many birds. The English population of about 500 pairs is largely confined to the south and east with a small population in Leighton Moss in north Lancashire. In Ireland there is a small but growing population, mainly in County Wexford. The largest single population in Great Britain is to be found in the reedbeds at the mouth of the River Tay in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, where there may be in excess of 250 pairs.[6]

Juvenile (top), adult males (center) and adult female (front)

Egg, collection of Museum Wiesbaden

Flock in natural habitat

Three males

ID composite

A juvenile pecks insects from a cobweb

Adult female in Kent, England


BirdLife International (2012). "Panurus biarmicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
Johansson, Ulf S.; Fjeldså, Jon; Bowie, Rauri CK (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships within Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes): a review and a new molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear intron markers". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48 (3): 858–876. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.029. PMID 18619860.
Oliveros, C.H.; et al. (2019). "Earth history and the passerine superradiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (16): 7916–7925. doi:10.1073/pnas.1813206116. PMC 6475423. PMID 30936315.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 71, 291. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Robson, Craig (2007). "Family Paradoxornithidae (Parrotbill)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 292–320. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2.
Forrester R.W. & Andrews I.J Eds (2007) The Birds of Scotland Volume 2 Scottish Ornithologists' Club ISBN 978-0-9512139-0-2

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