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Remiz pendulinus

Remiz pendulinus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida

Familia: Remizidae
Genus: Remiz
Species: Remiz pendulinus
Subspecies: R. p. caspius – R. p. jaxarticus – R. p. menzbieri – R. p. pendulinus

Remiz pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 189. Reference page.

Vernacular names
مصرى: قرقف البندول
العربية: قرقف البندول
башҡортса: Ҡоролдай
беларуская: Рэмез звычайны
български: Торбогнезд синигер
brezhoneg: Remiz ar yalc'h
català: Teixidor eurasiàtic
čeština: Moudivláček lužní
Cymraeg: Titw pendil
dansk: Pungmejse
Deutsch: Beutelmeise
Ελληνικά: Υφάντρα
English: Eurasian Penduline Tit
Esperanto: Saknesta paruo
español: Pájaro moscón europeo
eesti: Kukkurtihane
euskara: Dilindari
فارسی: چرخ‌ریسک تاب‌لانه اوراسیایی
suomi: Pussitiainen
français: Rémiz penduline
Gaeilge: Meantán crochta
galego: Ferreiriño de cara negra
עברית: רמית
magyar: Függőcinege
հայերեն: Ճոճոհավ
italiano: Pendolino
日本語: ツリスガラ
қазақша: Кәдімгі құрқылтай
lietuvių: Remeza
latviešu: Somzīlīte
македонски: Сипка торбарка
Nederlands: Buidelmees
norsk: Pungmeis
polski: Remiz zwyczajny
português: Chapim-de-faces-pretas
română: Boicuș
русский: Обыкновенный ремез
саха тыла: Өрүөстээх татыйык
slovenčina: Kúdeľníčka lužná
српски / srpski: Senica vuga
svenska: Pungmes
Türkçe: Bayağı çulha kuşu
українська: Ремез звичайний
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vahmaqush
vèneto: Pendolin
Tiếng Việt: Phàn tước châu Âu
中文: 攀雀

The Eurasian penduline tit or European penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus) is a passerine bird of the genus Remiz. It is relatively widespread throughout the western Palearctic. It is migratory in the northern part of its range but resident in the southern part.

The breeding range in Western Europe experienced an expansion during the 1980s and 1990s.[2] This was accompanied by an expansion of the species’ winter range and reached as far south as northern Morocco.[3]

It builds an elaborate hanging nest, formerly used in Central Europe as children's slippers.[4]

The Eurasian penduline tit was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Motacilla pedulinus.[5] It is now placed in the genus Remiz that was introduced in 1819 by the Polish zoologist Feliks Paweł Jarocki.[6][7] The genus name Remiz is the Polish word for the Eurasian penduline tit. The specific epithet is from Latin pendulus meaning "pendant" or "hanging down", referring to the nest.[8]

Four subspecies are recognised:[7]

R. p. pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Europe to the Ural Mountains, Caucasus and west Turkey
R. p. menzbieri (Zarudny, 1913) – south, east Turkey and Syria to Armenia and northwest Iran
R. p. caspius (Peltzam, 1870) – southwest Russia and northwest Kazakhstan
R. p. jaxarticus (Severtzov, 1873) – east Ural Mountains to west Siberia and north Kazakhstan


This is a small tit, 10–11.5 cm (3.9–4.5 in) in length with a finely pointed bill and a relatively long tail. The head is light grey with a black "mask" through the eye. The back is chestnut brown. The sexes are very similar in appearance, but the male has a broader mask and a more rufous back.[9]
Nest in Poland
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

The eggs are laid from end of April to the beginning of July. The nest is suspended from thin long branches of trees such as willow (Salix), elm (Ulmus) or birch (Betula), often over water. The nest can also sometimes be suspended between two or three reeds (Typha) only a meter or so above the water. The nest is a large free hanging pouch-shaped structure, approximately 25 cm (9.8 in) in height and 17 cm (6.7 in) in diameter. It is made of plant fibres, grass, hair and wool with an entrance tube at one side. Both sexes contribute to the construction which takes around 20 days. Eggs are laid daily. The clutch contains 6 to 8 white eggs which measure 16.2 mm × 10.7 mm (0.64 in × 0.42 in) and weigh 0.95 g (0.034 oz). Incubation starts after the last egg is laid and lasts for 14 days. The eggs are incubated by either the male or more usually the female, but not by both. The hatching is synchronous. The young are cared for by either the male or the female but rarely by both parents.[10] The nestlings are fed larval insects and spiders.[11] The nestlings fledge at around 22 days of age. The parents will sometimes attempt to raise a second brood, but this is rarely successful.[10]

The Eurasian penduline tit usually eats insects and spiders but will also eat seeds such as those from the willow (Salix). It generally searches for food in trees but will also forage in reeds where it will take insects from the stem as well as the seed head. It uses one foot to cling to the reed and the other to pull out clumps of seeds from the head.[11]
Status and conservation

The penduline tit has a large range, estimated at 1-10 million square kilometres (0.4-3.8 million square miles), and a population estimated at 420,000–840,000 individuals in Europe alone, and there is evidence that the population is increasing. It is therefore not believed to meet the IUCN Red List threshold criterion of a population decline of more than 30% in ten years or three generations, and is evaluated as Least Concern.[1]

BirdLife International (2019). "Remiz pendulinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T155249960A156122335. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T155249960A156122335.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
Valera, F.; Rey, P.; Sanchez-Lafuente, A.M.; Muñoz-Cobo, J. (1990). "The situation of penduline tit (Remiz pendulins) in southern Europe: A new stage of its expansion". Journal für Ornithologie. 131 (4): 413–420. doi:10.1007/BF01639817.
Amezian, M.; Thompson, I.; Bensusan, K.; Cortes, J.; Louah, A.; Qninba, A. (2011). "On regular wintering of Eurasian Penduline Tits Remiz pendulinus in northern Morocco". Ostrich. 82 (1): 39–42. doi:10.2989/00306525.2011.556783.
Harrap, Simon; Quinn, David (1996). Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers. Christopher Helm. pp. 205–211. ISBN 0-7136-3964-4.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 189.
Jarocki, Feliks Paweł (1819). Spis ptaków w gabinecie Zoologicznym Królewsko Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu znayduiących się a podług naynowszego systemu ustawionych przez F. P. Rawicza Jarockiego (in Polish). Warszawa: nakł. i drukiem Zawadzkiego i Węckiego Uprzywilejowanych Drukarzy i Księgarzy Dworu Królestwa Polskiego. p. 21.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2022). "Waxwings and allies, tits, penduline tits". IOC World Bird List Version 12.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 296, 333. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Svensson, Lars; Mullarney, Killian; Zetterström, Dan (2009). Collins Bird Guide (2nd ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-00-726814-6.
Cramp & Perrins 1993, pp. 391–393.

Cramp & Perrins 1993, p. 381.

Cramp, Stanley; Perrins, C.M., eds. (1993). "Remiz pendulinus Penduline Tit". Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. VII: Flycatchers to Strikes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 377–396. ISBN 978-0-19-857510-8.

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