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Spinus notatus

Carduelis notata (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Fringillidae
Subfamilia: Carduelinae
Genus: Spinus
Species: Spinus notatus
Subspecies: S. n. forreri – S. n. notatus – S. n. oleaceus

Spinus notatus (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847)

Carduelis notata (protonym)
Sporagra notata (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847)
Spinus notata (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847)


Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bruxelles, ser. 1 14: 106.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Schwarzbrustzeisig
English: Black-headed Siskin
español: Jilguero Cabecinegro
français: Chardonneret à tête noire
日本語: ズグロキバラヒワ
Türkçe: Siyah başlı iskete

The black-headed siskin (Spinus notatus), also known as the Jonny Bee, is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae. It is found in Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forest and heavily degraded former forest.
Evolution and systematics

This species is part of a rapid recent adaptive radiation of Spinus finches in Central and South America, which produced at least eight other recognized species: S. atratus, S. crassirostris, S. spinescens, S. yarrellii, S. magellanicus, S. olivaceus, S. xanthogastrus, and S. barbatus. The black-headed siskin was the earliest of these species to diverge.[2]

It was originally proposed that the radiation occurred around 3.5 million years ago, when an ancestral form, perhaps similar to the modern-day black-headed siskin, was able to adaptively radiate into South America. In this version of events, the dispersal into South America happened before the isthmus of Panama was complete (around 2.7 million years ago), but when mesothermal montane plant species were able to disperse across the narrowing strait. The novel plant communities in South America would have created many new niches into which the ancestral species adaptively radiated.[2]

More recent work suggests the species radiation happened much later, within the last 1 million years, and posits the radiation happened due to climate change in the late Pleistocene. The changing climate could have fragmented various habitats in the Andes, initiating allopatric speciation.[3]
Spinus notatus passing the Isthmus of Panama when it was closed[2]

BirdLife International (2020). "Spinus notatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22720392A139224440. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22720392A139224440.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Arnaiz-Villena, A; Alvarez-Tejado M; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Garcia-de-la-Torre C; Varela P; Recio MJ; Ferre S; Martinez-Laso J (1998). "Phylogeny and rapid northern and southern hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs" (PDF). Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 54 (9): 1031–41. doi:10.1007/s000180050230. PMID 9791543. S2CID 10654775.
Beckman, Elizabeth J.; Witt, Christopher C. (1 June 2015). "Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: Rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 87: 28–45. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.005. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 25796324.

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