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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Fringillidae
Subfamilia: Carduelinae
Genus: Spinus
Species: Spinus siemiradzkii

Spinus siemiradzkii (Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1883)

Chrysomitris siemiradzkii (protonym)
Carduelis siemiradzkii


Berlepsch, H. von & Taczanowski, W., 1883. Liste des Oiseaux recuillis par MM. Stolzmann et Siemiradzki dans l'Ecuadeur occidental. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London Pt.4: 536–577. BHL Reference page. p.551 BHL, pl. 50.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Safranzeisig
English: Saffron Siskin
español: Jilguero Azafranado
français: Chardonneret safran
日本語: サフランヒワ

The saffron siskin (Spinus siemiradzkii) is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae. It is found in Ecuador and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and urban areas. It is threatened by habitat destruction and the IUCN has assessed it as being a "least concern species".


The saffron siskin grows to a length of about 10 to 10.5 cm (3.9 to 4.1 in). Like other siskins, the colours of this bird are black, olive and yellow, with black wings with a prominent yellow band on the bases of the flight feathers and another on the wing coverts. The male differs from the male hooded siskin (Spinus magellanicus) in having an unstreaked, golden-olive back and bright yellow underparts. The female differs from the female hooded siskin by being altogether yellower, with yellow underparts rather than grey.[2]
Distribution and habitat

The saffron siskin is endemic to southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru. It is an uncommon bird found near the edges of dry woodland and in adjoining scrubland at altitudes below about 600 m (2,000 ft).[2]

The behaviour of the saffron siskin is similar to that of the hooded siskin but it usually occurs at lower elevations.[2] It feeds mainly on plant material, such as seeds, leaves and buds, but also on insects, foraging among tall grasses and plants and on the ground.[3] It breeds between January and May but little is known of its nesting habits.[3]

This bird is generally uncommon and seldom seen. The total population is estimated to be under 10,000 individuals and is probably in decline because of the conversion of forest for agricultural uses. Despite the bird occurring in the Machalilla National Park and five other protected areas in Ecuador, the International Union for Conservation of Nature assesses it as being a "least concern species". The high rate of deforestation in the country adds to the likeliness of the threat that it faces.[1]

BirdLife International (2021). "Spinus siemiradzkii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T22720386A192223337. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
Ridgely, Robert S.; Tudor, Guy (2009). Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America: The Passerines. University of Texas Press. p. 679. ISBN 978-0-292-71748-0.
Clement, P. "Saffron Siskin (Carduelis siemiradzkii)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. doi:10.2173/bow.safsis1.01. S2CID 216490822. Retrieved 30 July 2016.

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