Fine Art

Xenus cinereus

Xenus cinereus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Scolopacidae
Genus: Xenus
Species: Xenus cinereus

Xenus cinereus (Güldenstädt, 1775)

Scolopax cinerea (protonym)
Tringa cinerea


Novi commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae 19: 473, pl.19.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Terekruiter
العربية: طيطوى الرمل
azərbaycanca: Morodunka
беларуская: Кулік-марадунка
български: Пепеляв брегобегач
বাংলা: টেরেক বাটান
català: Siseta cendrosa
čeština: Vodouš malý
Cymraeg: Pibydd terek
dansk: Terekklire
Deutsch: Terekwasserläufer
Ελληνικά: Κιτρινονεραλλίδα
English: Terek Sandpiper
Esperanto: Tereka stringo
español: Andarríos del Terek
eesti: Hallkibu
euskara: Siseta cendrosa
suomi: Rantakurvi
føroyskt: Nevfattur stelkur
français: Chevalier bargette
Gaeilge: Gobadán Terek
galego: Bilurico do Terek
עברית: ביצנית אפורה
magyar: Terekcankó
հայերեն: Կտցար թերեքի
Bahasa Indonesia: Burung Trinil Bedaran
íslenska: Bjúgstelkur
italiano: Piro piro del Terek
日本語: ソリハシシギ
ქართული: რუხი კოკორინა
қазақша: Қайқытұмсық балшықшы
한국어: 뒷부리도요
lietuvių: Terekija
latviešu: Mazā puskuitala
монгол: Матгар үхэр зараг - ᠡᠷᠭᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠠᠭ
Bahasa Melayu: Burung Kedidi Sereng
Malti: Beggazzina tax-Xifa
Nederlands: Terekruiter
norsk: Tereksnipe
polski: Terekia
português: Maçarico-sovela
rumantsch: Trintga da Terek
română: Fluierar sur
русский: Мородунка
slovenčina: Brodník sivý
slovenščina: Sabljasti martinec
shqip: Këmbëqirithi i përhimë
српски / srpski: Krivokljuni prudnik - Кривоклјуни прудник
svenska: Tereksnäppa
Kiswahili: Chamchanga Kijivu
தமிழ்: Terek Ullan
ไทย: นกชายเลนปากแอ่น
Türkçe: Sarıbacak
українська: Мородунка
Tiếng Việt: Chim Choắt chân màng bé
中文: 翘嘴鹬

The Terek sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) is a small migratory Palearctic wader species and is the only member of the genus Xenus. It is named after the Terek River which flows into the west of the Caspian Sea, as it was first observed around this area.[2] The genus name Xenus is from Ancient Greek xenos stranger, and cinereus is Latin for "ash-grey" from cinis, cineris, "ashes".[3]

Description and systematics

Slightly larger than the common sandpiper at 22–25 cm (8.7–9.8 in) length, its long upcurved bill – somewhat reminiscent of an avocet's, but not as strongly curved – makes it very distinctive. As the scientific specific name implies, this wader has a grey back, face and breast in all plumages; a white supercilium may appear more or less distinct. The belly is whitish and the feet yellow; the bill has a yellowish base, with the rest being black.

The call is a high whistle.

Among the Scolopacidae, Xenus is part of the shank-tattler-phalarope clade and less closely related to the calidrid sandpipers. Based on the degree of DNA sequence divergence and putative shank and phalarope fossils from around the Oligocene/Miocene boundary some 23–22 million years ago, the Terek sandpiper presumably diverged from their relatives in the Late Oligocene. Given the numerous basal fossils of the group found in Eurasia it is likely that the Terek sandpiper lineage originated there, possibly by being isolated as the remains of the Turgai Sea dried up, which happened just around this time.[4][5][6]
Distribution and ecology

This bird breeds near water in the taiga from Finland through northern Siberia to the Kolyma River, and migrate south in winter to tropical coasts in east Africa, south Asia and Australia, usually preferring muddy areas. It is a rare vagrant in western Europe, and particularly in autumn it is sometimes seen passing through the Marianas on migration; on Palau, further off its usual migration route, it is decidedly uncommon on the other hand. Almost annually and apparently more and more often in recent times, a few birds stray to Alaska and the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands. Every few years, individual vagrants are recorded in the Neotropics, where they arrive either as migrating birds from Africa, or as North American strays accompanying local waders south for winter. Such vagrants have been recorded as far south as Argentina.[7][8][9]

The overall genetic variation in Terek sandpipers across their range is low, with some evidence of contractions followed by expansion. Although the geographically isolated Dniephe River population in Eastern Europe does show significant genetic differentiation.[10]

It feeds in a distinctive and very active way, chasing insects and other mobile prey, and sometimes then running to the water's edge to wash its catch.

It lays three or four eggs in a lined ground scrape.

The Terek sandpiper likes to associate with ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres), smallish calidrids, and Charadrius (but maybe not Pluvialis) plovers; a vagrant bird at Paraty (Rio de Janeiro state) was noted to pair up with a spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularius).[9] Thus it may be that the Terek sandpiper under natural conditions may mate with common sandpiper (A. hypoleucos), the Old World sister species of spotted sandpiper (A. macularius). As hybridisation in shorebirds is extremely commonplace and Actitis is among the closer relatives of the Terek sandpiper, such pairings (should they indeed occur) may produce hybrid offspring.

This is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Widespread and often quite commonly seen, the Terek sandpiper is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.[11]

Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus, little stint Calidris minuta and marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis in Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Eating ragworm in Shōnai River, Japan.

Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

In flight

In Narara, Jamnagar, India

In Narara, Jamnagar, India


BirdLife International (2012). "Xenus cinereus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
Carnaby, Trevor (2009). Beat About the Bush Birds. Jacana Media. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-77009-241-9. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 107, 411. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Mlíkovský, Jiří (2002). Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe (PDF). Prague: Ninox Press. OCLC 156629447.
Paton, Tara A.; Baker, Allan J.; Groth, J.G.; Barrowclough, G.F. (2003). "RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 29 (2): 268–278. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00098-8. PMID 13678682.
Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A.; Székely, Tamás (2004). "A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 4: 28. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28. PMC 515296. PMID 15329156.
Wiles, Gary J.; Johnson, Nathan C.; de Cruz, Justine B.; Dutson, Guy; Camacho, Vicente A.; Kepler, Angela Kay; Vice, Daniel S.; Garrett, Kimball L.; Kessler, Curt C.; Pratt, H. Douglas (2004). "New and Noteworthy Bird Records for Micronesia, 1986–2003". Micronesica. 37 (1): 69–96.
VanderWerf, Eric A.; Wiles, Gary J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Knecht, Melia (2006). "Observations of migrants and other birds in Palau, April–May 2005, including the first Micronesian record of a Richard's Pipit" (PDF). Micronesica. 39 (1): 11–29.
White, Richard W.; Lehnhausen, Bud; Kirwan, Guy M. (2006). "The first documented record of Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus for Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia (in English and Portuguese). 14 (4): 460–462.
Rönkä, N.; Pakanen, V.; Blomqvist, D.; Degtyaryev, M.; Golovatin, M.; Isakov, G.; Karlionova, N.; Lehikoinen, A.; Morozov, V.; Paskhalny, S.; Pauliny, A.; Pinchuk, P.; Rauhala, P.; Tomkovich, P.; Zakharov, E.; Koivula, K.; Kvist, L. (2019). "Near panmixia at the distribution‐wide scale but evidence of genetic differentiation in a geographically isolated population of the Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus". Ibis. 161 (3): 632–647. doi:10.1111/ibi.12651.
"Species factsheet: Xenus cinereus". BirdLife International. 2008.

Birds, Fine Art Prints

Birds Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World