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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Viperoidea

Familia: Viperidae
Subfamilia: Crotalinae
Genus: Bothrocophias
Species (7): B. andianus – B. campbelli – B. colombianus – B. hyoprora – B. lojanus – B. microphthalmus – B. myersi

Bothrocophias Gutberlet & Campbell, 2001: 4

Type species: Bothrops hyoprorus Amaral, 1935, by original designation.
Primary references

Gutberlet, Jr., R.L. & Campbell, J.A. 2001. Generic recognition for a neglected lineage of South American Pitvipers (Squamata: Crotalinae) with the description of a new species from the Colombian Chocó. American Museum Novitates 3316: 1–15. handle. Reference page.

Bothrocophias is a genus of venomous snakes in the subfamily Crotalinae of the family Viperidae, known by the common name toadheaded pit vipers.[1] The genus is endemic to northern South America.[2]


Bothrocophias is a relatively recently identified genus that consists of four[3] to seven[2] species, most of which were traditionally placed in Bothrops.

Recent evidence published by Campbell and Lamar (1989, 2004) suggests that Bothrocophias colombianus may lay eggs rather than give birth to live young. This would make it almost unique among New World pitvipers (but not Asian species). The only other American pitvipers known to lay eggs are the four species of bushmaster (Lachesis).

The following seven species are recognized as being valid.[2]

Bothrocophias andianus (Amaral, 1923) – Bolivia and Peru
Bothrocophias campbelli (Freire-Lascano, 1991) – Ecuador
Bothrocophias colombianus (Rendahl & Vestergren, 1940) – Colombia
Bothrocophias hyoprora (Amaral, 1935) – Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia
Bothrocophias lojanus (Parker, 1930) – Ecuador, Peru
Bothrocophias microphthalmus (Cope, 1876) – Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Brazil
Bothrocophias myersi (Gutberlet & Campbell, 2001) – Colombia

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Bothrocophias.

Surgery, Department of the Navy Bureau of Medicine and (September 1, 2013). Venomous Snakes of the World: A Manual for Use by U.S. Amphibious Forces. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781628734164 – via Google Books.
Bothrocophias at the Reptile Database. Accessed 11 June 2019.

Bothrocophias . ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist. Consulted: 2010-08-15.

Further reading

Campbell JA, Lamar WW (1989). The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Associates. 440 pp. ISBN 978-0801420597.
Gutberlet RL, Campbell JA (2001). "Generic Recognition for a Neglected Lineage of South Amnerican Pitvipers (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the Description of a New Species from the Colombian Chocó ". American Museum Novitates (3316): 1-15. (Bothrocophias, new genus, p. 4). (Bothrocophias myersi, new species, p. 7).


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